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In vivo gene knockout studies in mice have revealed essential roles of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in embryogenesis, but due to early lethality of the knockout embryos, the underlying mechanisms and specific developmental programs regulated by the MAPK pathways have remained largely unknown. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem(More)
Using forward and reverse genetics and global gene expression analyses, we explored the crosstalk between the IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathways. We show that in vitro ablation of Ikkβ in fibroblasts led to progressive ROS accumulation and TGFβ activation, and ultimately accelerated cell migration,(More)
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