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Although the field of polymer solar cell has seen much progress in device performance in the past few years, several limitations are holding back its further development. For instance, current high-efficiency (>9.0%) cells are restricted to material combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor. Here we(More)
Two-stage gas stripping for butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with Clostridium acetobutylicum JB200 in a fibrous bed bioreactor was studied. Compared to fermentation without in situ gas stripping, more ABE (10.0 g/L acetone, 19.2 g/L butanol, 1.7 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were(More)
Changes in small intestinal geometry, residual strain and stress-strain properties during physiological growth were studied in rats ranging from 1 to 32 weeks of age. Small intestinal mass and dimensions increased many-fold with age, e.g. the weight per unit length increased five-fold with age and the wall cross-sectional area increased four-fold. The(More)
The plant hormone auxin plays a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, and the spatial accumulation of auxin within organs, which is primarily attributable to local auxin biosynthesis and polar transport, is largely responsible for lateral organ morphogenesis and the establishment of plant architecture. Here, we show(More)
Clostridium acetobutylicum JB200, a mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 obtained through strain evolution in a fibrous bed bioreactor, had high butanol tolerance and produced up to ~21 g/L butanol from glucose in batch fermentation, an improvement of ~67 % over the parental strain (~12.6 g/L). Comparative genomic analysis revealed a single-base(More)
Causes of disuse atrophy include loss of upper motor neurons, which occurs in spinal cord injury (SCI) or lower motor neurons (denervation). Whereas denervation quickly results in muscle fibrillations, SCI causes delayed onset of muscle spasticity. To compare the influence of denervation or SCI on muscle atrophy and atrophy-related gene expression, male(More)
Butanol is considered as an advanced biofuel, the development of which is restricted by the intensive energy consumption of product recovery. A novel two-stage gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was developed for butanol recovery, with gas stripping as the first-stage and pervaporation as the(More)
The function of the small intestine is mechanical to a large degree. To understand the function it is necessary to know how the mechanical stresses and strains can be computed. Nutrition plays an important role in the maintenance of normal gut structure and function. The small intestine undergoes functional changes when food is withheld. To explore the(More)
Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and(More)
Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with a hyper-butanol producing Clostridium acetobutylicum JB200 was studied for its potential to produce a high titer of butanol that can be readily recovered with gas stripping. In batch fermentation without gas stripping, a final butanol concentration of 19.1 g/L was produced from 86.4 g/L glucose consumed in 78(More)