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Butanol has recently gained increasing interest due to escalating prices in petroleum fuels and concerns on the energy crisis. However, the butanol production cost with conventional acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation by Clostridium spp. was higher than that of petrochemical processes due to the low butanol titer, yield, and productivity in bioprocesses.(More)
Orthostatic hypotension commonly occurs in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), limiting rehabilitation and independence. Findings of increased production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) after exposure to simulated microgravity suggest that increased iNOS expression contributes to OH in persons with SCI. To test this(More)
Although the field of polymer solar cell has seen much progress in device performance in the past few years, several limitations are holding back its further development. For instance, current high-efficiency (>9.0%) cells are restricted to material combinations that are based on limited donor polymers and only one specific fullerene acceptor. Here we(More)
Causes of disuse atrophy include loss of upper motor neurons, which occurs in spinal cord injury (SCI) or lower motor neurons (denervation). Whereas denervation quickly results in muscle fibrillations, SCI causes delayed onset of muscle spasticity. To compare the influence of denervation or SCI on muscle atrophy and atrophy-related gene expression, male(More)
The overexpression of CoA transferase (ctfAB), which catalyzes the reaction: acetate/butyrate + acetoacetyl-CoA → acetyl/butyryl-CoA + acetoacetate, was studied for its effects on acid reassimilation and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2). The plasmid pMTL007 was used to co-express adhE2 and ctfAB from Clostridium acetobutylicum(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the(More)
Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population. A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped(More)
The plant hormone auxin plays a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, and the spatial accumulation of auxin within organs, which is primarily attributable to local auxin biosynthesis and polar transport, is largely responsible for lateral organ morphogenesis and the establishment of plant architecture. Here, we show(More)
The anabolic steroid oxandrolone is increasingly used to preserve or restore muscle mass in those with HIV infection or serious burns. These effects are mediated, in part, by the androgen receptor (AR). Anti-glucocorticoid effects have also been reported for some anabolic steroids, and the goal of our studies was to determine whether oxandrolone had a(More)
Previous numerical simulations on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration polarization in the arterial system indicated that LDL concentration polarization might play an important role in the genesis and development of atherosclerosis. To date, no in vivo experiments have examined this question directly, and the molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this(More)