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Several proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) localize to cilia. Furthermore, cilia are malformed in mice with PKD with mutations in TgN737Rpw (encoding polaris). It is not known, however, whether ciliary dysfunction occurs or is relevant to cyst formation in PKD. Here, we show that polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2(More)
CNS deletion of Pten in the mouse has revealed its roles in controlling cell size and number, thus providing compelling etiology for macrocephaly and Lhermitte-Duclos disease. PTEN mutations in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have also been reported, although a causal link between PTEN and ASD remains unclear. In the present study, we(More)
A key question in developmental biology is how cells exchange positional information for proper patterning during organ development. In plant roots the radial tissue organization is highly conserved with a central vascular cylinder in which two water conducting cell types, protoxylem and metaxylem, are patterned centripetally. We show that this patterning(More)
This chapter is concerned with methodological issues related to estimation, testing and computation in the context of structural changes in the linear models. A central theme of the review is the interplay between structural change and unit root and on methods to distinguish between the two. The topics covered are: methods related to estimation and(More)
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) is a lipid phosphatase that counteracts the function of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). Loss of function of PTEN results in constitutive activation of AKT and downstream effectors and correlates with many human cancers, as well as various brain disorders, including macrocephaly, seizures,(More)
We address the problem of hate speech detection in online user comments. Hate speech, defined as an “abusive speech targeting specific group characteristics, such as ethnicity, religion, or gender”, is an important problem plaguing websites that allow users to leave feedback, having a negative impact on their online business and overall user experience. We(More)
BACKGROUND When challenged with extracellular fluid shear stress, vascular endothelial cells are known to release nitric oxide, an important vasodilator. Here, we show that the ability of cultured endothelial cells to sense a low range of fluid shear depends on apical membrane organelles, called cilia, and that cilia are compartments required for proper(More)
The primary cilium acts as a transducer of extracellular stimuli into intracellular signaling [1, 2]. Its regulation, particularly with respect to length, has been defined primarily by genetic experiments and human disease states in which molecular components that are necessary for its proper construction have been mutated or deleted [1]. However, dynamic(More)
In this note, we present a new scheme to design adaptive controllers for uncertain systems preceded by unknown dead-zone nonlinearity. The control design is achieved by introducing a smooth inverse function of the dead-zone and using it in the controller design with backstepping technique. For the design and implementation of the controller, no knowledge is(More)