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Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage(More)
MOTIVATION Network inference algorithms are powerful computational tools for identifying putative causal interactions among variables from observational data. Bayesian network inference algorithms hold particular promise in that they can capture linear, non-linear, combinatorial, stochastic and other types of relationships among variables across multiple(More)
Signaling by the ureteric bud epithelium is essential for survival, proliferation and differentiation of the metanephric mesenchyme during kidney development. Most studies that have addressed ureteric signaling have focused on the proximal, branching, ureteric epithelium. We demonstrate that sonic hedgehog is expressed in the ureteric epithelium of the(More)
The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is(More)
We believe that names have a powerful influence on the experiments we do and the way in which we think. For this reason, and in the light of new evidence about the function and evolution of the vertebrate brain, an international consortium of neuroscientists has reconsidered the traditional, 100-year-old terminology that is used to describe the avian(More)
Kidney function depends on the nephron, which comprises a blood filter, a tubule that is subdivided into functionally distinct segments, and a collecting duct. How these regions arise during development is poorly understood. The zebrafish pronephros consists of two linear nephrons that develop from the intermediate mesoderm along the length of the trunk.(More)
In the developing brain, transcription factors (TFs) direct the formation of a diverse array of neurons and glia. We identifed 1445 putative TFs in the mouse genome. We used in situ hybridization to map the expression of over 1000 of these TFs and TF-coregulator genes in the brains of developing mice. We found that 349 of these genes showed restricted(More)
Kidney development is based on differential cell-type-specific expression of a vast number of genes. While multiple critical genes and pathways have been elucidated, a genome-wide analysis of gene expression within individual cellular and anatomic structures is lacking. Accomplishing this could provide significant new insights into fundamental developmental(More)
Fleeting activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) induces long-term modification of synaptic connections and refinement of neuronal circuits, which may underlie learning and memory and contribute to pathogenesis of a diversity of neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Here, we found that NR2A and NR2B subunit-containing NMDARs were coupled to distinct(More)
One of the biggest challenges in content based image retrieval is to solve the problem of “semantic gaps” between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts. In this paper, we aim to investigate various combinations of mid-level features to build an effective image retrieval system based on the bag-offeatures (BoF) model. Specifically, we study two(More)