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Following fertilization, the zygotic genome in many organisms is quiescent until the midblastula transition (MBT), when large-scale transcription begins. In Xenopus embryos, for example, transcription is believed to be repressed until the twelfth cell division. Thus, although dorsal-ventral patterning begins during the first cell cycle, little attention has(More)
Oleamide (cis-9,10-octadecenoamide) is an endogenous sleep-inducing lipid and prototypic member of a new class of biological signaling molecules identified in recent years. In the present study, the anxiolytic-like effect of oleamide was studied in several experimental models of anxiety in group-housed and socially isolated mice. As the results show,(More)
Schizophrenia is a devastating illness of unknown etiology and the basis for its treatment rests in the symptomatic response to antipsychotics. It was found that some of the patients with schizophrenia elicited microglia activation. The present study used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse microglial cell line N9 as an in vitro model to mimic(More)
Social isolation can induce psychological behavior changes. It is interesting to know whether there is sex difference in responding to social isolation or not. The present study compared the behavior difference between male and female mice isolated for 1-4 months. The results showed that the isolated male mice had higher accounts of locomotor activity than(More)
Many schizophrenic patients exhibit impairments in neurocognitive functions. Typical antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol, have limited or even detrimental influence on cognitive functions. In contrast, atypical antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine and olanzapine, may improve memory function in schizophrenics. However, only a few studies have been(More)
We have investigated the influences of the light-dark cycle and the pineal gland on the hypnotic activity of melatonin in rats and mice. The results showed that melatonin significantly shortened time to sleep onset and wakefulness time, increased slow wave sleep, paradoxical sleep, and total sleep time in rats during the light phase of a 12-h light:12-h(More)
In the present study, we investigated the effect of morphine on the extracellular levels of glutamate in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. The results showed that either acute or chronic morphine treatment decreased the(More)
Eye induction and eye field separation are the earliest events during vertebrate eye development. Both of these processes occur much earlier than the formation of optic vesicles. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway appears to be essential for eye induction, yet it remains unclear how IGF downstream pathways are involved in eye induction. As a(More)
For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a multipath routing protocol (MRP) based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO) is proposed. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some(More)
In the present study, pseudoginsenoside-F(11) (PF(11)), a saponin that existed in American ginseng, was studied on its protective effect on methamphetamine (MA)-induced behavioral and neurochemical toxicities in mice. MA was intraperitoneally administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg four times at 2-h intervals, and PF(11) was orally administered at the doses of(More)