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Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a genetic condition with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including parkinsonism and dementia. Here, we identified mutations in SLC20A2, encoding the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT2), in IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry, and we observed significantly(More)
This study was designed to determine whether adult mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), could be used to produce retinal precursors and subsequently photoreceptor cells for retinal transplantation to restore retinal function in degenerative hosts. iPSCs were generated using adult dsRed mouse dermal fibroblasts via retroviral induction of the(More)
Multimodal gating is an essential feature of many TRP ion channels, enabling them to respond to complex cellular environments. TRPV1, a pain receptor involved in nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, can be activated by a range of physical and chemical stimuli (e.g., capsaicin, proton, and heat) and further sensitized by proinflammatory substances.(More)
Human T cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been identified as the causative agent of both adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the exact sequence of events that occur during the early stages of infection are not known in detail, the initial route of infection may(More)
Vegetable cultivation during winter season is economically profitable, but the impact of the intensive production on soil and water quality remains to be studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal dynamics of soil nutrients, acidification and salt accumulation in vegetable fields in South-Eastern China. Various vegetables were(More)
Pigs are ideal organ donors for xenotransplantation and an excellent model for studying human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are used widely for gene targeting in various model animals. Here, we developed a strategy using TALENs to target the GGTA1, Parkin and DJ-1 genes in the porcine(More)
Adaptation is a common feature of many sensory systems. But its occurrence to pain sensation has remained elusive. Here we address the problem at the receptor level and show that the capsaicin ion channel TRPV1, which mediates nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, possesses properties essential to the adaptation of sensory responses. Ca(2+) influx(More)
Thermal TRP channels are important for thermal sensation and nociception, but their gating mechanisms have remained elusive. With optically generated submillisecond temperature steps from 22°C to >60°C, we have directly measured the activation and deactivation kinetics of TRPV1 channels, and from the measurements we determined the energetics of thermal(More)
Several thermal TRP ion channels have recently been identified. These channels are directly gated by temperature, but the mechanisms have remained elusive. Studies of their temperature gating have been impeded by lack of methods for rapid alteration of temperature in live cells. As a result, only measurements of steady-state properties have been possible.(More)
In this paper, a new hybrid impulsive and switching control strategy for synchronization of nonlinear systems is developed. Using switched Lyapunov functions, several new criteria for global exponential stability of hybrid impulsive and switching nonlinear systems are established and, particularly, some simple sufficient conditions for driving the(More)