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Thermal TRP channels are important for thermal sensation and nociception, but their gating mechanisms have remained elusive. With optically generated submillisecond temperature steps from 22°C to >60°C, we have directly measured the activation and deactivation kinetics of TRPV1 channels, and from the measurements we determined the energetics of thermal(More)
This study was designed to determine whether adult mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), could be used to produce retinal precursors and subsequently photoreceptor cells for retinal transplantation to restore retinal function in degenerative hosts. iPSCs were generated using adult dsRed mouse dermal fibroblasts via retroviral induction of the(More)
Protons, which are released during inflammation and injury, regulate many receptors and ion channels involved in pain transduction, including capsaicin channels (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors 1). Whereas extracellular acidification both sensitizes and directly activates the channel, it also causes concomitant reduction of the unitary(More)
The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL(-1)of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3(rd)(More)
Adaptation is a common feature of many sensory systems. But its occurrence to pain sensation has remained elusive. Here we address the problem at the receptor level and show that the capsaicin ion channel TRPV1, which mediates nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, possesses properties essential to the adaptation of sensory responses. Ca(2+) influx(More)
Previous studies have suggested that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes are possible susceptibility genes for schizophrenia. We hypothesized that these genes are also associated with schizotypal traits, which are heritable and related to schizophrenia. We genotyped five(More)
Sustained attention has been proposed as an endophenotype of schizophrenia, and consequently may be useful as a quantitative trait in genetic studies. In the present study, we used the continuous performance test (CPT) to measure sustained attention in 112 first-episode and neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients, 296 of their non-psychotic first-degree(More)
Multimodal gating is an essential feature of many TRP ion channels, enabling them to respond to complex cellular environments. TRPV1, a pain receptor involved in nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, can be activated by a range of physical and chemical stimuli (e.g., capsaicin, proton, and heat) and further sensitized by proinflammatory substances.(More)
A novel "long chain" toxin BmP09 has been purified and characterized from the venom of the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch. The toxin BmP09 is composed of 66 amino acid residues, including eight cysteines, with a mass of 7721.0 Da. Compared with the B. martensi Karsch AS-1 as a Na(+) channel blocker (7704.8 Da), the BmP09 has an exclusive difference(More)