Thermal TRP channels are important for thermal sensation and nociception, but their gating mechanisms have remained elusive. With optically generated submillisecond temperature steps from 22°C to >60°C, we have directly measured the activation and deactivation kinetics of TRPV1 channels, and from the measurements we determined the energetics of thermal… (More)
This study was designed to determine whether adult mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), could be used to produce retinal precursors and subsequently photoreceptor cells for retinal transplantation to restore retinal function in degenerative hosts. iPSCs were generated using adult dsRed mouse dermal fibroblasts via retroviral induction of the… (More)
for comments on this paper. We thank Noah Stoffman for providing us with an analysis of the disposition effect for the Finnish dataset. Laney Smith provided valuable research assistance.
Protons, which are released during inflammation and injury, regulate many receptors and ion channels involved in pain transduction, including capsaicin channels (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors 1). Whereas extracellular acidification both sensitizes and directly activates the channel, it also causes concomitant reduction of the unitary… (More)
Age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa are two leading causes of irreversible blindness characterized by photoreceptor loss. Cell transplantation may be one of the most promising approaches of retinal repair. However, several problems hinder the success of retinal regeneration, including cell delivery and survival, limited cell… (More)
Multimodal gating is an essential feature of many TRP ion channels, enabling them to respond to complex cellular environments. TRPV1, a pain receptor involved in nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, can be activated by a range of physical and chemical stimuli (e.g., capsaicin, proton, and heat) and further sensitized by proinflammatory substances.… (More)
Previous studies have suggested that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes are possible susceptibility genes for schizophrenia. We hypothesized that these genes are also associated with schizotypal traits, which are heritable and related to schizophrenia. We genotyped five… (More)