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Axonal and synaptic degeneration is a hallmark of peripheral neuropathy, brain injury, and neurodegenerative disease. Axonal degeneration has been proposed to be mediated by an active autodestruction program, akin to apoptotic cell death; however, loss-of-function mutations capable of potently blocking axon self-destruction have not been described. Here, we(More)
The visualization of molecularly labeled structures within large intact tissues in three dimensions is an area of intense focus. We describe a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method, iDISCO, that permits whole-mount immunolabeling with volume imaging of large cleared samples ranging from perinatal mouse embryos to adult organs, such as brains or kidneys.(More)
Radial, space-filling (RSF) techniques for hierarchy visualization have several advantages over traditional node-link diagrams, including the ability to efficiently use the display space while effectively conveying the hierarchy structure. Several RSF systems and tools have been developed to date, each with varying degrees of support for interactive(More)
Large number of dimensions not only cause clutter in multi-dimensional visualizations, but also make it difficult for users to navigate the data space. Effective dimension management, such as dimension ordering, spacing and filtering, is critical for visual exploration of such datasets. Dimension ordering and spacing explicitly reveal dimension(More)
The cell intrinsic factors that determine whether a neuron regenerates or undergoes apoptosis in response to axonal injury are not well defined. Here we show that the mixed-lineage dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is an essential upstream mediator of both of these divergent outcomes in the same cell type. Optic nerve crush injury leads to rapid elevation of(More)
Four macrocyclic cystine-knot peptides of 29-31 residues, kalata, circulin A and B (CirA and CirB), and cyclopsychotride, have been isolated from coffee plants but have undetermined physiological functions. These macrocycles and 10 of their analogs prepared by chemical synthesis were tested against nine strains of microbes. Kalata and CirA were specific for(More)
The cellular prion protein, PrP(C), is neuroprotective in a number of settings and in particular prevents cerebellar degeneration mediated by CNS-expressed Doppel or internally deleted PrP ('DeltaPrP'). This paradigm has facilitated mapping of activity determinants in PrP(C) and implicated a cryptic PrP(C)-like protein, 'pi'. Shadoo (Sho) is a hypothetical(More)
Axonal death disrupts functional connectivity of neural circuits and is a critical feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. Pathological axon degeneration often occurs independently of known programmed death pathways, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using traumatic injury as a model, we systematically investigate(More)
Cu ions have been suggested to enhance the assembly and pathogenic potential of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide. To explore this relationship in vivo, toxic-milk (txJ) mice with a mutant ATPase7b transporter favoring elevated Cu levels were analyzed in combination with the transgenic (Tg) CRND8 amyloid precursor protein mice exhibiting(More)
Genome-wide association analysis is a powerful tool for annotating phenotypic effects on the genome and knowledge of genes and chromosomal regions associated with dairy phenotypes is useful for genome and gene-based selection. Here, we report results of a genome-wide analysis of predicted transmitting ability (PTA) of 31 production, health, reproduction and(More)