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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative motor neuron disorder. Ten percent of cases are inherited; most involve unidentified genes. We report here 13 mutations in the fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) gene on chromosome 16 that were specific for familial ALS. The FUS/TLS protein binds to RNA, functions in diverse(More)
Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is a regulator of cell survival and apoptosis. To become fully activated, PKB/Akt requires phosphorylation at two sites, threonine 308 and serine 473, in a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent manner. The kinase responsible for phosphorylation of threonine 308 is the PI 3-kinase-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1), whereas(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) are neurodegenerative conditions that affect large motor neurons of the central nervous system. We have identified a familial juvenile PLS (JPLS) locus overlapping the previously identified ALS2 locus on chromosome 2q33. We report two deletion mutations in a new gene that are found both(More)
A doubled haploid population of 123 lines from IR64/Azucena was used to dissect the developmental behavior and genotype by environment interaction for plant height by conditional and unconditional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping methods in rice. It was shown that the number of QTL detected was different at various measuring stages. Some QTL could be(More)
Auditory signals are transmitted from the inner ear through the brainstem to the higher auditory regions of the brain. Neurons throughout the auditory system are tuned to stimulus frequency, and in many auditory regions are arranged in topographical maps with respect to their preferred frequency. These properties are assumed to arise from the interactions(More)
The Jamaican mustached bat has delay-tuned neurons in the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex. The responses of these neurons to an echo are facilitated by a biosonar pulse emitted by the bat when the echo returns with a particular delay from a target located at a particular distance. Electrical stimulation of cortical(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS To characterize IL-17-producing cells, a newly defined T helper cell subset with potent pro-inflammatory properties, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to determine their prognostic values. METHODS One hundred and seventy-eight HCC patients were enrolled randomly. Distribution and phenotypic features of IL-17-producing cells were(More)
Four putative missense mutations were identified in the neuroligin 4 gene in 148 autistic patients and not in 336 healthy controls (P1⁄40.009). This genetic mechanism is estimated to apply in about 3% of US Midwest and Portuguese Caucasians. Initial family data suggest that partial penetrance may occur. No structural variant was found in the neuroligin 3(More)
Unlike the quasitriangular frequency-tuning curves of peripheral neurons, pencil- or spindle-shaped frequency-tuning curves (excitatory areas) have been found in the central auditory systems of many species of animals belonging to different classes. Inhibitory tuning curves (areas) are commonly found on both sides of such "level-tolerant" sharp(More)