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Wistar rats, treated with the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, were used to investigate the role of the hippocampal-prelimbic cortical (Hip-PLC) circuit in spatial learning in the Morris water maze task, and in passive avoidance learning in the step-through task. In the water maze task, animals were trained for three consecutive days and tested 24 h after(More)
There is a unidirectional, ipsilateral and monosynaptic projection from the hippocampus to the prefrontal cortex. The cognitive function of hippocampal-prefrontal cortical circuit is not well established. In this paper, we use muscimol treated rats to investigate the roles of the hippocampal-prefrontal cortical circuits in spatial working memory, as(More)
The hippocampus, being sensitive to stress and glucocorticoids, plays significant roles in certain types of learning and memory. Therefore, the hippocampus is probably involved in the increasing drug use, drug seeking, and relapse caused by stress. We have studied the effect of stress with morphine on synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus(More)
It has not been uniform to date that the Ginkgo biloba extracts enhance cognitive function in aged animals, and the mechanisms of action remain difficult to elucidate. In this study, the Morris water maze task and electrophysiological methods were used to study the effects of repeated daily administration of EGb 761, a standardized extract from G. biloba(More)
Environmental stimuli during neonatal periods play an important role in the development of cognitive function. In this study, we examined the long-term effects of neonatal tactile stimulation (TS) on spatial working memory (SWM) and related mechanisms. We also investigated whether TS-induced effects could be counteracted by repeated short periods of(More)
The effects of aniracetam on extracellular amino acid levels in the hippocampus of conscious gerbils, with or without transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, were measured by microdialysis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Increased extracellular levels of aspartate and glutamate that were observed in the hippocampus of conscious(More)
It is established that stress impairs spatial learning and memory via the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. Dopamine D1 receptors were also shown to be responsible for a stress-induced deficit of working memory. However, whether stress affects the subsequent emotional learning and memory is not elucidated yet. Here, we employed the(More)
The study on learning and memory is one of the striking subjects in neuroscience today. In the cerebral cortex, it is has been proved that, the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampal-prefrontal cortical circuit are important to working memory. In this paper, we review findings of the anatomical and electrophysiological characteristics of the(More)
Extract of Ginkgo biloba is used to alleviate age-related decline in cognitive function, which may be associated with the loss of catecholamines in the prefrontal cortex. The purpose of this study was to verify whether alpha-2 adrenergic activity is involved in the facilitative effects of extract of Ginkgo biloba on prefrontal cognitive function. Male(More)
We simultaneously recorded auditory evoked potentials (AEP) from the temporal cortex (TCx), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFCx) and the parietal cortex (PCx) in the freely moving rhesus monkey to investigate state-dependent changes of the AEP. AEPs obtained during passive wakefulness, active wakefulness (AW), slow wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement(More)