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The heterotetrameric adaptor proteins (AP complexes) link the outer lattice of clathrin-coated vesicles with membrane-anchored cargo molecules. We report the crystal structure of the core of the AP-1 complex, which functions in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Packing of complexes in the crystal generates an exceptionally long (1,135-A) unit-cell axis, but(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate [PI(4)P] is essential for secretion in yeast, but its role in mammalian cells is unclear. Current paradigms propose that PI(4)P acts primarily as a precursor to phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2), an important plasma membrane regulator. We found that PI(4)P is enriched in the mammalian Golgi, and used RNA(More)
BACKGROUND The leaf is an important plant organ, and how it will respond to future global warming is a question that remains unanswered. The effects of experimental warming on leaf photosynthesis and respiration acclimation has been well studied so far, but relatively little information exists on the structural and biochemical responses to warming. However,(More)
MiR-150 is a microRNA (miRNA) specifically expressed in mature lymphocytes, but not their progenitors. A top predicted target of miR-150 is c-Myb, a transcription factor controlling multiple steps of lymphocyte development. Combining loss- and gain-of-function gene targeting approaches for miR-150 with conditional and partial ablation of c-Myb, we show that(More)
The Ikaros gene encodes a family of early hematopoietic- and lymphocyte-restricted transcription factors. Mice homozygous for a germline mutation in the Ikaros DNA-binding domain lack not only T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells but also their earliest defined progenitors. In contrast, the erythroid and myeloid lineages were intact in these mutant(More)
We experimentally demonstrate what we believe to be a novel wavelength division multiplexing-passive optical networking (WDM-PON) architecture compatible with 60 GHz radio-over-fiber systems to simultaneously provide wireless or wired services. We place each wireless/wire-line channel in one WDM slot to carry a 2.5 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division(More)
Variable, diversity and joining gene segment (V(D)J) recombination assembles immunoglobulin heavy or light chain (IgH or IgL) variable region exons in developing bone marrow B cells, whereas class switch recombination (CSR) exchanges IgH constant region exons in peripheral B cells. Both processes use directed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repaired by(More)
Neuroinflammation and abnormal phosphorylation of TAU proteins have been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have suggested the G-308A promoter polymorphism in one of the proinflammatory cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) encoding TNF-alpha may be associated with AD pathogenesis. Association between(More)
Abbreviations used in this paper: BMM, bone marrow – derived macrophages; Introduction Fc ␥ receptor (Fc ␥ R)-mediated phagocytosis is critically important for innate host defense, infl ammation, and tissue remodeling (Groves et al., 2008). Professional phagocytes such as macro-phages express Fc ␥ R to rapidly internalize opsonized pathogens and immune(More)