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BACKGROUND The leaf is an important plant organ, and how it will respond to future global warming is a question that remains unanswered. The effects of experimental warming on leaf photosynthesis and respiration acclimation has been well studied so far, but relatively little information exists on the structural and biochemical responses to warming. However,(More)
PARK8/LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) was recently identified as a causative gene for autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), with LRRK2 mutation G2019S linked to the most frequent familial form of PD. Emerging in vitro evidence indicates that aberrant enzymatic activity of LRRK2 protein carrying this mutation can cause neurotoxicity. However, the(More)
Growing evidence suggests that astroglia are involved in pain states, but no studies have tested their possible involvement in modulating the activity of nociceptive neurons per se. This study has demonstrated that the central sensitization induced in functionally identified nociceptive neurons in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (the medullary dorsal horn)(More)
Typical therapies try to reverse pathogenic mechanisms. Here, we describe treatment effects achieved by enhancing depression-causing mechanisms in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. In a social defeat stress model of depression, depressed (susceptible) mice display hyperactivity of VTA DA neurons, caused by an up-regulated(More)
Our laboratory has been investigating the participation of striatal neurokinin-1 receptors in the methamphetamine (METH)-induced loss of striatal neurons. Signaling through these receptors exacerbates the METH-induced striatal apoptosis. METH induces the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and the latter has been linked to the activation of neurodegenerative(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pain is associated with depression. In rodents, pain is often assessed by sensory hypersensitivity, which does not sufficiently measure affective responses. Low-dose ketamine has been used to treat both pain and depression, but it is not clear whether ketamine can relieve depression associated with chronic pain and whether this(More)
AIM To evaluate whether the newly-synthesized positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [18F]2-(4'-(methylamino)phenyl)-6-fluoroethoxy- benzothiazole ([18F] O-FEt-PIB), could bind to beta-amyloid aggregates in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using micro-PET. METHOD [18F]O-FEt-PIB was synthesized and purified by radio HPLC. PET imaging was(More)
To develop an optimal bioprocess for the production of tanshinone which is mainly used for the treatment of cardiocerebral vascular disease, the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway regulation must be better understood. In this paper, expression of tanshinone biosynthetic pathway related genes as well as tanshinone accumulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root(More)
Pain and natural rewards such as food elicit different behavioral effects. Both pain and rewards, however, have been shown to alter synaptic activities in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key component of the brain reward system. Mechanisms by which external stimuli regulate plasticity at NAc synapses are largely unexplored. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant that induces long-term deficits of dopamine terminal markers and apoptotic cell death in the striatum. Our laboratory demonstrated that pharmacological blockade of the neurokinin-1 receptor attenuated the METH-induced damage to the striatal dopamine terminals and the apoptotic cell death of some striatal neurons.(More)