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Functional recovery after stroke has been associated with brain plasticity; however, the exact relationship is unknown. We performed behavioral tests, functional MRI, and histology in a rat stroke model to assess the correlation between temporal changes in sensorimotor function, brain activation patterns, cerebral ischemic damage, and cerebrovascular(More)
To determine whether diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction is due to contractile dysfunction at the single-cell level, mechanical properties and Ca2+ transients were evaluated in ventricular myocytes isolated from diabetic rats. Rats were made diabetic by injection with streptozotocin and killed either 4-6 days or 8 wk after treatment. Shortening and(More)
The sequence and structural selectivity of 15 different DNA binding agents was explored using a novel, thermodynamically rigorous, competition dialysis procedure. In the competition dialysis method, 13 different nucleic acid structures were dialyzed against a common ligand solution. More ligand accumulated in the dialysis tube containing the structural form(More)
We have determined the structures of four complexes of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with non-nucleoside inhibitors, three fully refined at high resolution. The highest resolution structure is of the RT-nevirapine complex which has an R-factor of 0.186 and a root-mean-square bond length deviation of 0.015 A for all data to 2.2 A. The structures reveal a(More)
Effect of aging, bolus volume, temperature, and consistency on the pharyngeal peristalsis, as well as the effect of aging on the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) resting pressure and its response to esophageal distension by air and balloon, were studied in 14 young and 12 healthy elderly volunteers. In both age groups there was no significant volume or(More)
Insulin resistance is concomitant with metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress and cardiac contractile dysfunction. However, the causal relationship between oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction is unknown. This study was designed to determine the impact of overexpression of the cardiac antioxidant metallothionein on cardiac dysfunction induced by insulin(More)
Properties of whole-cell glycine currents (IGly) of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons from 3- to 7-day old Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated with the patch-clamp technique. Ninety-three percent of the 126 neurons examined produced IGly in response to glycine. For 70% of these neurons, IGly did not decay in response to a threshold concentration of(More)
Electrophysiological recording was used to study a type of slow excitatory postsynaptic potential (slow EPSP) that was mediated by release of ATP and its action at P2Y1 receptors on morphologically identified neurones in the submucosal plexus of guinea-pig small intestine. MRS2179, a selective P2Y1 purinergic receptor antagonist, blocked both the slow EPSP(More)
Deciphering how neural circuits are anatomically organized with regard to input and output is instrumental in understanding how the brain processes information. For example, locus coeruleus noradrenaline (also known as norepinephrine) (LC-NE) neurons receive input from and send output to broad regions of the brain and spinal cord, and regulate diverse(More)
Brain circuits endow behavioral flexibility. Here, we study circuits encoding flexible chemotaxis in C. elegans, where the animal navigates up or down NaCl gradients (positive or negative chemotaxis) to reach the salt concentration of previous growth (the set point). The ASER sensory neuron mediates positive and negative chemotaxis by regulating the(More)