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The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding events, as well as where and when these occurred, is not known. To address these questions, we examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation among 654 domestic dogs representing all major dog populations worldwide. Although our data indicate several(More)
The time-limited role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in human long-term memory is well known. However, there is still no direct neuroimaging evidence to confirm it. In this fMRI study, nine subjects were scanned while asked to recall the places they visited more than seven years ago (remote memories); and the places they visited recently (recent(More)
Insight problem solving has been the topic of much investigation. It is believed widely that insight critically contains the process of breaking one's mental set. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on puzzle solving showed that insight was associated with activities in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and other areas (Luo and Niki(More)
BACKGROUND Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress may play a potential role in such dysfunctions. However, it(More)
α-Synuclein (α-syn) plays a prominent role in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, only a few studies on α-syn have been performed in the mDA neurons in vivo, which may be attributed to a lack of α-syn transgenic mice that develop PD-like severe degeneration of mDA neurons. To gain mechanistic(More)
Efforts to identify meaningful functional imaging-based biomarkers are limited by the ability to reliably characterize inter-individual differences in human brain function. Although a growing number of connectomics-based measures are reported to have moderate to high test-retest reliability, the variability in data acquisition, experimental designs, and(More)
Insights are sporadic, unpredictable, short-lived moments of exceptional thinking where unwarranted assumptions need to be discarded before solutions to problems can be obtained. Insight requires a restructuring of the problem situation that is relatively rare and hard to elicit in the laboratory. One way of dealing with this problem is to catalyze such(More)
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders in human adults. It can be characterized as a progressive neurological disorder of which the most recognizable feature is a tremor of the arms or hands that is apparent during voluntary movements such as eating and writing. The pathology of ET remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI),(More)
Collections of Bionectriaceae and Nectriaceae from Henan, Hubei and Guangdong provinces, China, were examined. Three new species, Neonectria confusa, N. shennongjiana and N. sinensis, are described and illustrated. Distinctions between the new species and their related taxa are discussed. Phylogenetic relationships among some Neonectria species are(More)