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The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety-spectrum disorder characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive actions (compulsions). Dysfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry is implicated in OCD, although the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. SAP90/PSD95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3; also known(More)
OBJECTIVE This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on neurodevelopmental outcome in term and preterm infants at 1 month of age. METHODS The sample included 658 exposed and 730 comparison infants matched on race, gender, and gestational age (11.7% born <33 weeks' gestational age). Mothers(More)
Many antiretroviral drugs continue to exert an anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) benefit in the presence of drug resistance mutations. The degree to which enfuvirtide exerts continued antiviral activity in the presence of incomplete viral suppression has not been defined. To address this question, 25 subjects interrupted enfuvirtide while remaining on(More)
The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a key animal model for biomedical research. However, the genetic infrastructure required for connecting phenotype and genotype in the rat is currently incomplete. Here, we report the construction and integration of two genomic maps: a dense genetic linkage map of the rat and the first radiation hybrid (RH) map of(More)
In the past decade, the most prevalent norovirus genotype causing viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, including China, has been GII.4. In winter 2014-15, norovirus outbreaks in Guangdong, China, increased. Sequence analysis indicated that 82% of the outbreaks were caused by a norovirus GII.17 variant.
The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids(More)
The gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) crown group comprises two extant clades with contrasting character complements. Notably, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) lack the large dermal bones that characterize Osteichthyes (bony fish and tetrapods). The polarities of these differences, and the morphology of the last common ancestor of crown gnathostomes, are(More)
Others have shown that H(2)DIDS reversibly and covalently binds to the first lysine (K) in the SKLIK motif at the extracellular end of transmembrane segment 5 of the Cl-HCO(3) exchanger AE1. Here we mutated K558, K559, and/or K562 in the homologous KKMIK motif of human NBCe1-A. We expressed constructs in Xenopus oocytes, and used a two-electrode voltage(More)