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AIMS Impulsivity is common in bipolar disorder, especially during mania. Understanding the functional neuroanatomy of response inhibition, one component of impulsivity, might clarify the neural substrate of bipolar disorder. METHODS Sixteen DSM-IV first-episode, manic bipolar patients and 16 matched healthy subjects were examined during a first manic(More)
BACKGROUND Bipolar I disorder is defined by the occurrence of mania. The presence of mania, coupled with a course of illness characterized by waxing and waning of affective symptoms, suggests that bipolar disorder arises from dysfunction of neural systems that maintain emotional arousal and homeostasis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)(More)
A general picture is presented of the implications for diffusion-weighted NMR signals of the parsimonious two-site-exchange (2SX) paradigm. In particular, it is shown that the diffusigraphic "shutter-speed," tau(-1) identical with |q(2)(D(A) - D(B))|, is a useful concept. The "wave-number" q has its standard definition (given in the text), and D(A) and D(B)(More)
We examined sustained attention deficits in bipolar disorder and associated changes in brain activation assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that relative to healthy participants, those with mania or mixed mania would (1) exhibit incremental decrements in sustained attention over time, (2) overactivate brain regions(More)
Chronic cocaine abuse has been associated with cerebrovascular pathology. This is likely to reflect its vasoactive effects; cocaine produces vasoconstriction and reduces cerebral blood flow. We propose that cerebrovascular pathology in chronic cocaine abusers would result in abnormal BOLD [blood oxygenation level dependent] responses to activation stimuli.(More)
PURPOSE Magnetic resonance T1 -weighted images are routinely used for human brain segmentation, brain parcellation, and clinical diagnosis of demyelinating diseases. Myelin is thought to influence the longitudinal relaxation commonly described by a mono-exponential recovery, although reports of bi-exponential longitudinal relaxation have been published. The(More)
Long acquisition times, low resolution, and voxel contamination are major difficulties in the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). To overcome these difficulties, an online-optimized acquisition of k-space, termed sequential forward array selection (SFAS), was developed to reduce acquisition time without sacrificing spatial(More)
OBJECTIVES This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. METHOD Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were experiencing a manic(More)
An NMR method is presented for measuring compartment-specific water diffusion coefficient (D) values. It uses relaxography, employing an extracellular contrast reagent (CR) to distinguish intracellular (IC) and extracellular (EC) (1)H(2)O signals by differences in their respective longitudinal (T(1)) relaxation times. A diffusion-weighted inversion-recovery(More)
We present an automatic segmentation method using the Maximum a posterior (MAP)-Markov random field (MRF) framework that possesses regional adaptive capability for the segmentation of MR brain images with the presence of noise and the intensity inhomogeneity. A spatial-varying Gaussian mixture (SVGM) is used to model the conditional probability distribution(More)