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BACKGROUND Ketamine exerts a robust, rapid, and relatively sustained antidepressant effect in patients with major depression. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the intriguing effects of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists could lead to novel treatments with a rapid onset of action. METHODS The learned helplessness, forced swim, and passive(More)
Fundamental to most genetic analysis is availability of genomic DNA of adequate quality and quantity. Because DNA yield from human samples is frequently limiting, much effort has been invested in developing methods for whole genome amplification (WGA) by random or degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. However, existing WGA methods like degenerate(More)
AIMS Although many studies have been performed on CYP2C19, most of them have mainly examined the effects of the defective alleles CYP2C19(*)2 and CYP2C19(*)3. A comprehensive search for genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 gene in the Chinese Han population has rarely been conducted. The present study was designed to determine the genetic basis of CYP2C19(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to evaluate the entire picture of all monocyte chemotactic factors that potentially contribute to adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Expression and regulation of members in the entire chemokine superfamily were evaluated in adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes of obese versus lean mice.(More)
The cellular basis underlying the complex clinical symptomatology of bipolar disorder and the mechanisms underlying the actions of its effective treatments have not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigated the role of hippocampal synaptic AMPA receptors. We found that chronic administration of the antimanic agents lithium and valproate (VPA)(More)
The mechanisms contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy, as well as the protective pathways of the kallikrein-kinin-system (KKS), are incompletely understood. In a kallikrein-overexpressing rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy, we investigated the involvement of inflammatory pathways, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative(More)
Glucocorticoids play an important biphasic role in modulating neural plasticity; low doses enhance neural plasticity and spatial memory behavior, whereas chronic, higher doses produce inhibition. We found that 3 independent measures of mitochondrial function-mitochondrial oxidation, membrane potential, and mitochondrial calcium holding capacity-were(More)
A major challenge in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology is to balance the flux of an engineered heterologous metabolic pathway to achieve high yield and productivity in a target organism. Here, we report a simple, efficient and programmable approach named 'customized optimization of metabolic pathways by combinatorial transcriptional engineering(More)
Molecular mechanisms underlying long-term neurotrophic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity are unknown. We report here that long-term treatment of neuromuscular synapses with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) potentiates spontaneous and evoked transmitter release, in ways very similar to presynaptic expression of the Ca(2+)(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A(More)