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Recent studies show that network coding can provide significant benefits to network protocols, such as increased throughput, reduced network congestion, higher reliability, and lower power consumption. The core principle of network coding is that intermediate nodes actively mix input packets to produce output packets. This mixing subjects network coding(More)
Although nonclassical estrogen actions initiated at the cell surface have been described in many tissues, the identities of the membrane estrogen receptors (mERs) mediating these actions remain unclear. Here we show that GPR30, an orphan receptor unrelated to nuclear estrogen receptors, has all the binding and signaling characteristics of a mER. A(More)
Progestin withdrawal is a crucial event for the onset of labor in many mammalian species. However, in humans the mechanism of a functional progestin withdrawal is unclear, because progestin concentrations do not drop in maternal plasma preceding labor. We report the presence of two novel functional membrane progestin receptors (mPRs), mPRalpha and mPRbeta,(More)
In recent years, network coding has emerged as a new communication paradigm that can significantly improve the efficiency of network protocols by requiring intermediate nodes to mix packets before forwarding them. Recently, several real-world systems have been proposed to leverage network coding in wireless networks. Although the theoretical foundations of(More)
The quality of a software system highly depends on its architectural design. High quality software systems typically apply expert design experience which has been captured as design patterns. As demonstrated solutions to recurring problems, design patterns help to reuse expert experience in software system design. They have been extensively applied in(More)
Progesterone's (P4) negative feedback actions in the female reproductive axis are exerted in part by suppression of hypothalamic GnRH release. Here we show that P4 can inhibit GnRH release by a mechanism independent of a nuclear P4 receptor (PR(A/B)). Injections of P4, but not vehicle, allopregnanolone, or dexamethasone, acutely suppressed LH levels in both(More)
Iodine is essential for the synthesis of triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)). Iodine deficiency leads to inadequate thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones deficiency during brain development affects cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, and memory. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits is unclear. To investigate the role of iodine(More)
To determine the influence of continuous hypoxia on body weight, food intake, hepatic glycogen, circulatory glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, and corticosterone, and the involvement of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRFR1) in modulation of these hormones, rats were exposed to a simulated altitude of 5 km (approximately 10.8% O2) in a(More)