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Proinflammatory cytokines inhibit learning and memory but the significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in acute cognitive deficits induced by the peripheral innate immune system is not known. To examine the functional role of IL-6 in hippocampus-mediated cognitive impairments associated with peripheral infections, C57BL6/J (IL-6(+/+)) and IL-6 knock-out(More)
Hemoproteins are critical for the function and integrity of aerobic cells. However, free heme is toxic. Therefore, cells must balance heme synthesis with its use. We previously demonstrated that the feline leukemia virus, subgroup C, receptor (FLVCR) exports cytoplasmic heme. Here, we show that FLVCR-null mice lack definitive erythropoiesis, have(More)
Acute cognitive impairment (i.e., delirium) is common in elderly emergency department patients and frequently results from infections that are unrelated to the central nervous system. Since activation of the peripheral innate immune system induces brain microglia to produce inflammatory cytokines that are responsible for behavioral deficits, we investigated(More)
Acute cognitive disorders are common in elderly patients with peripheral infections but it is not clear why. Here, we injected old and young mice with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic an acute peripheral infection and separated the hippocampal neuronal cell layers from the surrounding hippocampal tissue by laser capture microdissection and(More)
Although starvation-induced biochemical and metabolic changes are perceived by the hypothalamus, the adrenal gland plays a key role in the integration of metabolic activity and energy balance, implicating feeding as a major synchronizer of rhythms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Given that orexins are involved in regulating food intake and(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs able to regulate a broad range of protein-coding genes involved in many biological processes. miR-96 is a sensory organ-specific miRNA expressed in the mammalian cochlea during development. Mutations in miR-96 cause nonsyndromic progressive hearing loss in humans and mice. The mouse mutant diminuendo has a single(More)
The expression of several inflammatory cytokines that inhibit synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent learning and memory is higher in the brains of aged mice compared to young adults after peripheral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study we investigated whether the exaggerated inflammatory cytokine response in the hippocampus of aged(More)
CONTEXT Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multifaceted metabolic disease linked with insulin resistance (IR) and obesity. Recent studies have shown that plasma levels of the insulin-mimetic adipokine visfatin increase with obesity. Currently, no data exist on the relative expression of visfatin in either plasma or adipose tissue of PCOS women. (More)
Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. mongolicus, family Leguminosae) is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbs. Among many secondary metabolites it produces, the effective bioactive constituents include isoflavonoids and triterpene saponins. The genomic resources regarding the biosynthesis of these metabolites in A.(More)
Spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) acts as a Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter in zebrafish and mice, regulating heart development and lymphocyte trafficking respectively. S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid with multiple roles in signalling. The mechanism of action of Spns2 is still elusive in mammals. Here, we report that Spns2-deficient mice(More)