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Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for gene expression analysis. However, the expression profile of a target gene may be misinterpreted due to unstable expression of the reference genes under different experimental conditions. Thus, a systematic evaluation of these reference genes is(More)
Most fruits in our daily diet are the products of domestication and breeding. Here we report a map of genome variation for a major fruit that encompasses ~3.6 million variants, generated by deep resequencing of 115 cucumber lines sampled from 3,342 accessions worldwide. Comparative analysis suggests that fruit crops underwent narrower bottlenecks during(More)
Oryza (23 species; 10 genome types) contains the world's most important food crop - rice. Although the rice genome serves as an essential tool for biological research, little is known about the evolution of the other Oryza genome types. They contain a historical record of genomic changes that led to diversification of this genus around the world as well as(More)
Comparative genomics is a powerful tool to decipher gene and genome evolution. Placing multiple genome comparisons in a phylogenetic context improves the sensitivity of evolutionary inferences. In the genus Oryza, this comparative approach can be used to investigate gene function, genome evolution, domestication, polyploidy, and ecological adaptation. A(More)
The size and shape of the plant leaf is an important agronomic trait. To understand the molecular mechanism governing plant leaf shape, we characterized a classic rice (Oryza sativa) dwarf mutant named narrow leaf1 (nal1), which exhibits a characteristic phenotype of narrow leaves. In accordance with reduced leaf blade width, leaves of nal1 contain a(More)
The cultivation of rice in Africa dates back more than 3,000 years. Interestingly, African rice is not of the same origin as Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) but rather is an entirely different species (i.e., Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Here we present a high-quality assembly and annotation of the O. glaberrima genome and detailed analyses of its evolutionary(More)
Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., is an economically important vegetable crop which is processed or consumed fresh worldwide. However, the narrow genetic base in cucumber makes it difficult for constructing high-density genetic maps. The development of massively parallel genotyping methods and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an excellent(More)
The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact(More)
Plant cell surface-localized receptor kinases such as FLS2, EFR, and CERK1 play a crucial role in detecting invading pathogenic bacteria. Upon stimulation by bacterium-derived ligands, FLS2 and EFR interact with BAK1, a receptor-like kinase, to activate immune responses. A number of Pseudomonas syringae effector proteins are known to block immune responses(More)
We used a newly synthesized allotetraploid between C. sativus (2n = 2x = 14, n gametic chromosome number, x haploid chromosome number) and C. hystrix (2n = 2x = 24) to study the genomic events in its early generations. Results from cytological characterization of the F(1) and the allotetraploid progenies showed that the rate of bivalents in meiotic(More)