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Applications of N-methyl amino acids (NMAAs) in drug discovery are limited by their low efficiencies of ribosomal incorporation, and little is known mechanistically about the steps leading to incorporation. Here, we demonstrate that a synthetic tRNA body based on a natural N-alkyl amino acid carrier, tRNA(Pro), increases translation incorporation rates of(More)
Chemical synthesis of N-acyl-aminoacyl-pdCpA and its ligation to tRNA(minus CA) is widely used for the preparation of unnatural aminoacyl-tRNA substrates for ribosomal translation. However, the presence of the unnatural deoxyribose can decrease incorporation yield in translation and there is no straightforward method for chemical synthesis of the natural(More)
In the past couple of years, various information-centric networking (ICN) architectures have been proposed to address the existing problems of the current Internet, each of which from a different perspective. Thus, it becomes critical to deploy and interoperate different ICNs on top of the same physical network infrastructure. This demo presents SD-ICN, a(More)
The utility of ribosomal incorporation of unnatural amino acids (AAs) in vivo is generally restricted by low efficiencies, even with the most widely used suppressor tRNA(Pyl) . Because of the difficulties of studying incorporation in vivo, almost nothing is known about the limiting steps after tRNA charging. Here, we measured the kinetics of all subsequent(More)
Ribosomal synthesis of polymers of unnatural amino acids (AAs) is limited by low incorporation efficiencies using the artificial AA-tRNAs, but the kinetics have yet to be studied. Here, kinetics were performed on five consecutive incorporations using various artificial AA-tRNAs with all intermediate products being analyzed. Yields within a few seconds(More)
Over the past few years, many architectures have been proposed for the future Internet. Nevertheless, such new schemes usually require existing systems to migrate to their proposed namespaces, which may compromise the adoption of new technologies. In addition, we note that most existing networked systems have their own namespaces, but inter-operation among(More)
In the current Internet architecture, application service providers (ASPs) own users' data and social groups information, which made a handful of ASP companies growing bigger and bigger and denied small and medium companies from entering this business. We propose a new architecture, called Application Independent Information Infrastructure (AI3). The design(More)