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TCF7L2 and SLC30A8 have been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as with impaired proinsulin processing recently, enzymes encoded by PCSK1 and PCSK2 are reported to play an important role in the process of proinsulin conversion. To investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TCF7L2, SLC30A8, PCSK1 and(More)
OBJECTIVE GTS-21, a selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, has recently been established as a promising treatment for inflammation. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of GTS-21 in suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production is only partially explored. The study aimed to analyze cytokine expression suppressed by GTS-21 with(More)
AIMS Genistein, an isoflavone derivative found in soy, is known as a promising treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the detailed molecular mechanism of genistein in suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production remains ambiguous. The aim of this work was to evaluate the signal pathway by which genistein modulates inflammatory cytokine(More)
Amylin is the major constituent of pancreatic islet amyloid whose accumulation characterizes patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although amylin is tightly linked with T2DM, in many cases, proamylin may be the more toxic species. As the precursor of amylin, however, the pathophysiological role of proamylin remains unknown. In this study, we(More)
At present, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a type of autoimmune disease. Its pathology is not certain, and effective drugs with less toxicity have not been established. The establishment and application of animal models are effective methods for RA research, especially using animal models similar to humans. Arthritis is more heterogeneous, and this(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs. Without treatment, inflammation leads to cartilage damage, bone erosions, joint destruction, and impaired movement. Because of the limited success of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, the exploration of new anti-rheumatic drugs with high(More)
Honeybees swarm when they move to a new site for their hive. During the process of swarming, their behavior can be analyzed by classifying them as informed bees or uninformed bees, where the informed bees have some information about the destination while the uninformed bees follow the informed bees. The swarm’s movement can be viewed as a network of mobile(More)
Pilocarpine has been used as a choice of drugs for treatment of impaired salivary flow. Although considerable data are available as to the stimulatory effect of pilocarpine on the salivary secretion in human, its underlying mechanism, at the cellular level, has not been rigorously studied. In this experiment, we studied the effect of pilocarpine on the ion(More)