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Keywords: Off-line handwritten recognition Hidden Markov model (HMM) Dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) Performance evaluation IFN/ENIT database a b s t r a c t This paper presents a comparative study of two machine learning techniques for recognizing handwritten Arabic words, where hidden Markov models (HMMs) and dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) were(More)
Recognition of handwritten Arabic cursive texts is a complex task due to the similarities between letters under different writing styles. In this paper, a word-based off-line recognition system is proposed, using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The method employed involves three stages, namely preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. First, words(More)
—Three-dimensional television (3D-TV) has gained increasing popularity in the broadcasting domain, as it enables enhanced viewing experiences in comparison to conventional two-dimensional (2D) TV. However, its application has been constrained due to the lack of essential contents, i.e., stereoscopic videos. To alleviate such content shortage, an economical(More)
Given that neural networks have been widely reported in the research community of medical imaging, we provide a focused literature survey on recent neural network developments in computer-aided diagnosis, medical image segmentation and edge detection towards visual content analysis, and medical image registration for its pre-processing and post-processing,(More)
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Keywords: Motion analysis Domain knowledge modeling Trajectory modeling 3D vision Video signal processing Sports analysis a b s t r a c t This paper demonstrates innovative techniques for estimating the trajectory of a soccer ball from multiple fixed cameras. Since the ball is nearly always moving and frequently occluded, its size and shape appearance(More)
A general framework for automatic 3D soccer ball estimation and tracking from multiple image sequences is proposed. Firstly, the ball trajectory is modelled as planarcurves in consecutive virtual vertical planes. These planes are then determined by two ball positions with accurately estimated height, namely critical points, which are extracted by curvature(More)