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BACKGROUND The morphological definition of atrial chambers, and the determination of atrial laterality, are based on analysis of the structure of the atrial appendages. The systemic and pulmonary venous connections to the heart, nonetheless, are important in the management of patients having isomeric appendages. In this study, therefore, we analysed the(More)
Debate continues as to whether low blood lead level, even below 5 microg/dl, impairs neurodevelopmental function in children. This study assessed the association between neurodevelopmental performance and lead exposure below 5 microg/dl in Korean children. Data were collected from 61 children, aged 7-16 years with a mean blood lead level of 2.9 microg/dl,(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the association between job stress and insomnia in a large nationwide samples of Korean workers. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, a total of 8,155 workers from a nationwide sample were recruited. We surveyed the subjects' socio-demographic and work-related characteristics and seven subscales of occupational stress using the(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). METHODS AND RESULTS This study included 2032 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004), in which the ankle brachial index (ABI) and serum levels of(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and job stress, as measured by the KOSS, among Korean employees in small- and medium-sized enterprises, and examined which components of stress are involved in the risk for depression among males and females. METHODS Data were collected from a work-stress survey(More)
OBJECTIVE To present the normative data of the transverse diameter of the developing fetal thymus. METHODS In this prospective study, the maximum transverse diameter of the thymus was measured by one sonologist in 376 normal fetuses between 19 and 38 weeks of gestation. We assessed the relationship of the transverse thymic diameter with gestational age(More)
Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recognized as a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated the effects of CO on cardiac autonomic function by measuring the heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). We also explored the relationship between CO exposure and specific components of MetS. Data were(More)
BACKGROUND Cadmium, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, exhibits potential neurotoxic risk. Although compelling evidence suggests cadmium accumulation has a role in the formation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, the supporting evidence in humans is limited and conflicting.(More)
We assessed the outcomes of various reconstructive methods for skull base defect after endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) depending on the degree of intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. Between Jan. 2008 and Sep. 2009, 122 consecutive patients underwent 124 EEA for sellar and extra-sellar lesions. Intraoperative CSF leaks were classified as(More)
Aortic arch anomalies refer to congenital abnormalities of the position or branching pattern, or both of the aortic arch. Although aortic arch anomalies are not uncommon, reports on their prenatal diagnosis are scarce. Insight into the hypothetical arch model is crucial to understanding anomalies of the aortic arch in the fetus. Recognition of the trachea,(More)