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Epigenetics refers to partially reversible, somatically inheritable, but DNA sequence-independent traits that modulate gene expression, chromatin structure, and cell functions such as cell cycle and apoptosis. DNA methylation is an example of a crucial epigenetic event; aberrant DNA methylation patterns are frequently found in human malignancies. DNA(More)
Tyroserleutide (YSL) is an active, low-molecular-weight polypeptide, comprised of three amino acids, that has shown antitumor effects on human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the inhibition of YSL on invasion and adhesion of the mouse B16-F10 melanoma cell line by injecting B16-F10 cells into the tail veins of(More)
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the major substrate of cerebral palsy in survivors of prematurity. Its pathogenesis is complex and likely involves ischemia/reperfusion in the critically ill premature infant, with impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow, as well as inflammatory mechanisms associated with maternal and/or fetal infection. During the(More)
The NAD-dependent histone deacetylase Sirt1 antagonizes p53 transcriptional activity to regulate cell-cycle progression and apoptosis. We have identified a ubiquitin-specific peptidase, USP22, one of the 11 death-from-cancer signature genes that are critical in controlling cell growth and death, as a positive regulator of Sirt1. USP22 interacts with and(More)
Acetylation and deacetylation are counteracting, post-translational modifications that affect a large number of histone and nonhistone proteins. The significance of histone acetylation in the modification of chromatin structure and dynamics, and thereby gene transcription regulation, has been well recognized. A steadily growing number of nonhistone proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Type A influenza virus is one of important pathogens of various animals, including humans, pigs, horses, marine mammals and birds. Currently, the viral type has been classified into 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes, but the phylogenetic diversity and distribution within the viral type largely remain unclear from the whole view. (More)
Patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) fail to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function and develop an excessive and potentially fatal efflux of plasma proteins. PLE occurs in ostensibly unrelated diseases, but emerging commonalities in clinical observations recently led us to identify key players in PLE pathogenesis. These include elevated(More)
H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are of significance in poultry and public health, but epidemiological studies about the viruses are scarce. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of the viruses were analyzed based on 1233 previously reported sequences and 745 novel sequences of the viral hemagglutinin gene. The novel sequences were obtained(More)
The glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate (HS), binds proteins to modulate signaling events in embryogenesis. All identified protein-binding HS epitopes contain l-iduronic acid (IdoA). We report that targeted disruption of the murine d-glucuronyl C5-epimerase gene results in a structurally altered HS lacking IdoA. The corresponding phenotype is lethal, with(More)
Heparin remains a major drug in prevention of thromboembolic disease. Concerns related to its animal source have prompted search for heparin analogues. The anticoagulant activity of heparin depends on a specific pentasaccharide sequence that binds antithrombin. We report the generation of a product with antithrombin-binding, anticoagulant, and(More)