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There is accumulating evidence that microRNAs are involved in multiple processes in development and tumor progression. Abnormally expressed miR-125b was found to play a fundamental role in several types of cancer; however, whether miR-125b participates in regulating the initiation and progress of osteosarcoma still remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that(More)
Extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated intercellular transfer of signaling proteins and nucleic acids has recently been implicated in the development of cancer and other pathological conditions; however, the mechanism of EV uptake and how this may be targeted remain as important questions. Here, we provide evidence that heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (PGs;(More)
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria, but the mechanisms are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is altered renal lipid metabolism and increased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in a model of diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high(More)
Using a high throughput heparan sulfate (HS) isolation and characterization protocol, we have analyzed HS structure in several tissues from mice/mouse embryos deficient in HS biosynthesis enzymes (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST)-1, NDST-2, and C5-epimerase, respectively) and in mice lacking syndecan-1. The results have given us new information(More)
Proteoglycan (PG) coreceptors carry heparan sulfate (HS) chains that mediate interactions with growth factors, morphogens, and receptors. Thus, PGs modulate fundamental processes such as cell survival, division, adhesion, migration, and differentiation. This review summarizes recent biochemical and genetic information that sheds new light on the nature of(More)
Heparan sulfates (HS) are linear carbohydrate chains, covalently attached to proteins, that occur on essentially all cell surfaces and in extracellular matrices. HS chains show extensive structural heterogeneity and are functionally important during embryogenesis and in homeostasis due to their interactions with various proteins. Phage display antibodies(More)
BACKGROUND Type A influenza virus is one of important pathogens of various animals, including humans, pigs, horses, marine mammals and birds. Currently, the viral type has been classified into 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes, but the phylogenetic diversity and distribution within the viral type largely remain unclear from the whole view. (More)
When shed from the cell surface, the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 can facilitate the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumors. Here we report that tumor cell expression of heparanase, an enzyme known to be a potent promoter of tumor progression and metastasis, regulates both the level and location of syndecan-1 within the tumor(More)
The glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate (HS), binds proteins to modulate signaling events in embryogenesis. All identified protein-binding HS epitopes contain l-iduronic acid (IdoA). We report that targeted disruption of the murine d-glucuronyl C5-epimerase gene results in a structurally altered HS lacking IdoA. The corresponding phenotype is lethal, with(More)
Diabetic kidney disease has been associated with the presence of lipid deposits, but the mechanisms for the lipid accumulation have not been fully determined. In the present study, we found that db/db mice on the FVB genetic background with loss-of-function mutation of the leptin receptor (FVB-Lepr(db) mice or FVBdb/db) develop severe diabetic nephropathy,(More)