A direct gold-catalyzed 5-endo-dig cycloisomerization of chiral homopropargyl sulfonamides has been developed. A range of enantioenriched 2,3-dihydropyrroles are readily accessed by utilizing this approach. Importantly, this gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization reaction proceeds through an anti-Markovnikov addition by using a catalytic base as the additive,… (More)
A novel gold-catalyzed intermolecular oxidation of o-alkynylbiaryls has been developed. A variety of functionalized fluorenes are readily accessed by utilizing this non-diazo approach, thus providing a viable alternative to synthetically useful fluorenes.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pathological status of the vestibular system associated with noise-induced inner ear impairment. METHODS Totally 68 patients with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) who presented with vestibular symptoms including vertigo, dizziness, and chronic disequilibrium were screened. All patients underwent a series of conventional… (More)
OBJECTIVE To study human vestibular cerebral representations by combining right-sided ice-water stimulation at 0 degree C with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and to evaluate the value of this method in the functional localization of human vestibular cortex. METHODS Twenty right-handed volunteers (12 men… (More)