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OBJECTIVE A multicenter, controlled trial showed that early blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with type 1 diabetes and normoalbuminuria did not retard the progression of nephropathy, suggesting that other mechanism(s) are involved in the pathogenesis of early diabetic nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy). We have previously demonstrated(More)
Plants have evolved and adapted to different environments. Dwarfism is an adaptive trait of plants that helps them avoid high-energy costs under unfavourable conditions. The role of gibberellin (GA) in plant development has been well established. Several plant dehydration-responsive element-binding proteins (DREBs) have been identified and reported to be(More)
BACKGROUND The topography of an implant surface can serve as a powerful signaling cue for attached cells and can enhance the quality of osseointegration. A series of improved implant surfaces functionalized with nanoscale structures have been fabricated using various methods. METHODS In this study, using an H(2)O(2) process, we fabricated two(More)
Endothelial dysfunction and enhanced transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad3 signalling are common features of progressive renal fibrosis. This study investigated a potential link between these mechanisms. In unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) we observed an acute (6 hr) down-regulation of nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3/eNOS) levels and increased(More)
Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the(More)
The podocyte depletion hypothesis has emerged as a unifying concept in glomerular pathology. According to this hypothesis podocyte depletion may be absolute (decrease in number of healthy mature podocytes), relative (fewer podocytes per unit of glomerular volume) or involve alterations to the specialized podocyte architecture (such as foot process(More)
Stem cell therapies have had tremendous potential application for many diseases in recent years. However, the tumorigenic properties of stem cells restrict their potential clinical application; therefore, strategies for reducing the tumorigenic potential of stem cells must be established prior to transplantation. We have demonstrated that syngeneic(More)
Non-reproductive copulation, which takes place outside of the mating season and does not result in conception and birth, was studied in a free-ranging group of Tibetan monkeys (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China, in the birth seasons of 1992 and 1997. We employed all occurrence and focal animal samplings to record sexual and related behaviors and(More)
Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is(More)