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Caffeine is well known for its complex pharmacological actions, in part reflecting the multiple molecular targets of caffeine. The adenosine receptors are the primary extracellular targets of caffeine. Since caffeine has similar affinity for several adenosine receptors, it has been difficult to determine which receptor subtypes mediate caffeine's effects(More)
As key molecular chaperone proteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) represent an important cellular protective mechanism against neuronal cell death in various models of neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect as well as the molecular mechanism of geldanamycin (GA), an inhibitor of Hsp90, on 1-methyl-4-pheny-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(More)
We have previously shown that Idazoxan (IDA), an imidazoline 2 receptor ligand, is neuroprotective against spinal cord injury caused by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mouse, an animal modal of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the protective mechanism remains unclear. Here, we provided evidence to show that IDA confers neuroprotection(More)
There is evidence that adenosine acting at A(2A) receptors (A(2A)R) can influence striatal plasticity and cognitive functions. We examined spatial working memory in wild-type (WT) and A(2A) receptor knock-out (KO) mice using two assessments: the eight arm radial maze and a repeated trial Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm. Compared to WT littermates, A(2A)R(More)
Studies with multiple sclerosis patients and animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) implicate adenosine and adenosine receptors in modulation of neuroinflammation and brain injury. Although the involvement of the A(1) receptor has been recently demonstrated, the role of the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) in development of EAE(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Wuling Capsule is a single herbal formula from mycelia of precious Xylaria nigripes (Kl.) Sacc and its pharmacological function have a tranquilizing effect on the central nervous system. The aim of the study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Wuling capsule in treatment of insomnia. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a(More)
BACKGROUND Isolated distal deep venous thrombosis (IDDVT) is a common complication after ischemic stroke. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the clinical features and risk factors of IDDVT in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to establish and validate a clinical prediction scale of IDDVT at an early stage of ischemic(More)
OBJECTIVE To select the items from the Chinese menopause rating scale (CMRS) through pre-testing those people with menopausal syndromes. METHODS 293 people were surveyed in Guangzhou in 2005, among which 196 people with menopausal syndromes and others without. Psychometrics methods were employed to develop the scale. The item pools were all round. Methods(More)
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