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includes the SREBPs (sterol regulatory element-binding proteins), transmembrane proteins of the ER whose cy-tosolic transcription factor domains are liberated when cells are deprived of sterols, thereby activating genes controlling lipid synthesis and uptake (Brown and Gold-A final example is the amyloid precursor Medical Center protein (APP), a(More)
We recently reported that Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication requires one or more geranylgeranylated host proteins. Using a combination of [(3)H]mevalonate labeling, coimmunoprecipitation, and bioinformatic search, we identified a geranylgeranylated host protein required for HCV RNA replication. This protein, FBL2, contains an F box domain and a CAAX(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication depends on viral protein association with intracellular membranes, but the influence of membrane composition on viral replication is unclear. We report that HCV RNA replication and assembly of the viral replication complex require geranylgeranylation of one or more host proteins. In cultured hepatoma cells, HCV RNA(More)
This paper describes a convergent mechanism for the feedback control of cholesterol synthesis and uptake mediated by SREBPs, membrane bound transcription factors. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound SREBPs form complexes with Scap, a polytopic ER protein. In sterol-overloaded cells, Scap/SREBP binds to Insig-1, which retains the complex in the ER. Upon sterol(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) both are secreted uniquely by hepatocytes and circulate in blood in a complex. Here, we isolated from human hepatoma cells the membrane vesicles in which HCV replicates. These vesicles, which contain the HCV replication complex, are highly enriched in proteins required for(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. HCV-infected hepatocytes are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which initiate lipid peroxidation, a reaction that converts polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonate, into reactive carbonyls that inactivate proteins. To study the effect of(More)
Insig-1 and Insig-2 are closely related proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that block proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), membrane-bound transcription factors that activate synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids in animal cells. When cellular cholesterol levels are high, Insig proteins bind to SREBP(More)
Insig-1 and Insig-2, closely related endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins, mediate transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms that assure cholesterol homeostasis through their sterol-induced binding to Scap (SREBP cleavage-activating protein) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Recent studies show that Insig-1 (but not Insig-2)(More)
Hepatocytes play a crucial role in regulating lipid metabolism by exporting cholesterol and triglyceride into plasma through secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL production is also required for release of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from infected hepatocytes. Here, we show that long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSL3) plays a crucial role in(More)