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cause Alzheimer’s disease (Selkoe, 1996; Annaert and Explosive advances in biological knowledge are often De Strooper, 1999). Although the fate of the liberated triggered by episodes of conceptual convergence— APP cytosolic domain is not known, the mechanism for moments when scientists working on different experiintramembrane processing of the APP precursor(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) both are secreted uniquely by hepatocytes and circulate in blood in a complex. Here, we isolated from human hepatoma cells the membrane vesicles in which HCV replicates. These vesicles, which contain the HCV replication complex, are highly enriched in proteins required for(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication depends on viral protein association with intracellular membranes, but the influence of membrane composition on viral replication is unclear. We report that HCV RNA replication and assembly of the viral replication complex require geranylgeranylation of one or more host proteins. In cultured hepatoma cells, HCV RNA(More)
We recently reported that Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication requires one or more geranylgeranylated host proteins. Using a combination of [(3)H]mevalonate labeling, coimmunoprecipitation, and bioinformatic search, we identified a geranylgeranylated host protein required for HCV RNA replication. This protein, FBL2, contains an F box domain and a CAAX(More)
Insig-1 and Insig-2 are closely related proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that block proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), membrane-bound transcription factors that activate synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids in animal cells. When cellular cholesterol levels are high, Insig proteins bind to SREBP(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. HCV associates with host apolipoproteins and enters hepatocytes through complex processes involving some combination of CD81, claudin-1, occludin, and scavenger receptor BI. Here we show that infectious HCV resembles very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and that entry involves co-receptor(More)
We probed the kinetics with which cholesterol moves across the human red cell bilayer and exits the membrane using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin as an acceptor. The fractional rate of cholesterol transfer (% s(-1)) was unprecedented, the half-time at 37 degrees C being ~1 s. The kinetics observed under typical conditions were independent of donor concentration(More)
This paper describes a convergent mechanism for the feedback control of cholesterol synthesis and uptake mediated by SREBPs, membrane bound transcription factors. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound SREBPs form complexes with Scap, a polytopic ER protein. In sterol-overloaded cells, Scap/SREBP binds to Insig-1, which retains the complex in the ER. Upon sterol(More)
How do cells sense and control their cholesterol levels? Whereas most of the cell cholesterol is located in the plasma membrane, the effectors of its abundance are regulated by a small pool of cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The size of the ER compartment responds rapidly and dramatically to small changes in plasma membrane cholesterol around(More)
We tested the hypothesis that certain membrane-intercalating agents increase the chemical activity of cholesterol by displacing it from its low activity association with phospholipids. Octanol, 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (a diglyceride), and N-hexanoyl-D-erythrosphingosine (a ceramide) were shown to increase both the rate of transfer and the extent of(More)