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This paper proposes an approach to optimally synthesize quantum circuits by symbolic reachability analysis, where the primary inputs and outputs are basis binary and the internal signals can be nonbinary in a multiple-valued domain. The authors present an optimal synthesis method to minimize quantum cost and some speedup methods with nonoptimal quantum(More)
Reversible quantum logic plays an important role in quantum computing. In this paper, we propose an approach to optimally synthesize quantum circuits by symbolic reachability analysis where the primary inputs are purely binary. we use symbolic reachability analysis, a technique most commonly used in model checking (a way of formal verification), to(More)
In this paper, we propose a straightforward solution to the problems of compositional parallel programming by using skeletons as the uniform mechanism for structured composition. In our approach parallel programs are constructed by composing procedures in a conventional base language using a set of high-level, pre-defined, functional, parallel computational(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) composed of NR1 and NR3 subunits differ from other NMDAR subtypes in that they require glycine alone for activation. However, little else is known about the activation mechanism of these receptors. Using NMDAR glycine-site agonists/antagonists in conjunction with functional mutagenesis of the NR1 and NR3(More)
We present a kinetic Monte Carlo method for simulating chemical transformations specified by reaction rules, which can be viewed as generators of chemical reactions, or equivalently, definitions of reaction classes. A rule identifies the molecular components involved in a transformation, how these components change, conditions that affect whether a(More)
We introduce a graph-theoretic formalism suitable for mod-eling biochemical networks marked by combinatorial complexity, such as signal-transduction systems, in which protein-protein interactions play a prominent role. This development extends earlier work by allowing for explicit representation of the connectivity of a protein complex. Within the(More)
BACKGROUND S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is an endogenous molecule that plays an important role in cellular metabolism. Despite being widely used as a dietary supplement with claimed benefits for numerous conditions, there is little information about the pharmacokinetic properties of exogenous SAMe. OBJECTIVES One aim of this study was to characterize the(More)
Prostate cancer risk-associated variants have been reported in populations of European descent, African-Americans and Japanese using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To systematically investigate prostate cancer risk-associated variants in Chinese men, we performed the first GWAS in Han Chinese. In addition to confirming several associations reported(More)