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Apoptosis, or cellular suicide, is important for normal development and tissue homeostasis, but too much or too little apoptosis can also cause disease. The family of cysteine proteases, the so- called caspases, are critical mediators of programmed cell death, and thus far 14 family members have been identified. Some of these, such as caspase-8, mediate(More)
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are essential molecules for mammalian development. The nine known FGF ligands and the four signaling FGF receptors (and their alternatively spliced variants) are expressed in specific spatial and temporal patterns. The activity of this signaling pathway is regulated by ligand binding specificity, heparan sulfate(More)
The oriented peptide library technique was used to investigate the peptide-binding specificities of nine PDZ domains. Each PDZ domain selected peptides with hydrophobic residues at the carboxyl terminus. Individual PDZ domains selected unique optimal motifs defined primarily by the carboxyl terminal three to seven residues of the peptides. One family of PDZ(More)
The formation of haploid spores marks the initiation of the gametophytic phase of the life cycle of all vascular plants ranging from ferns to angiosperms. In angiosperms, this process is initiated by the differentiation of a subset of floral cells into sporocytes, which then undergo meiotic divisions to form microspores and megaspores. Currently, there is(More)
The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated when cells are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, the functional consequence of JNK activation in UV-irradiated cells has not been established. It is shown here that JNK is required for UV-induced apoptosis in primary murine embryonic fibroblasts. Fibroblasts with simultaneous targeted(More)
The in vivo biological function of a steroid receptor coactivator was assessed in mice in which the SRC-1 gene was inactivated by gene targeting. Although in both sexes the homozygous mutants were viable and fertile, target organs such as uterus, prostate, testis, and mammary gland exhibited decreased growth and development in response to steroid hormones.(More)
Arrestins are soluble cytoplasmic proteins that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors, thus switching off activation of the G protein and terminating the signalling pathway that triggers the cellular response. Although visual arrestin has been shown to quench the catalytic activity of photoexcited, phosphorylated rhodopsin in a reconstituted system, its role(More)
Transcriptional coactivators have been viewed as constitutively active components, using transcription factors mainly to localize their functions. Here, it is shown that PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) promotes transcription through the assembly of a complex that includes the histone acetyltransferases steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and CREB binding(More)
The Fgf8 gene is expressed in developing limb and craniofacial structures, regions known to be important for growth and patterning of the mouse embryo. Although Fgf8 is alternatively spliced to generate at least 7 secreted isoforms that differ only at their mature amino terminus, the biological significance of these multiple isoforms is not known. In this(More)
The EH domain proteins Pan1p and End3p of budding yeast have been known to form a complex in vivo and play important roles in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis. In this report, we describe new findings concerning the function of the Pan1p-End3p complex. First, we found that the Pan1p-End3p complex associates with Sla1p, another protein(More)