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The pro-apoptotic effect of nitric oxide (NO) has been reported both in vivo and in vitro. Previous studies have revealed that NO, especially which produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), has an important effect on apoptosis of neurons in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To investigate the role of iNOS in this process, a(More)
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in the regulation of cortical neurons by influencing the release of glutamate. However, the specific mechanisms are unclear. Hence, we isolated and cultured the cortical neurons of Sprague Dawley rats. Specific inhibitors of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ1, Akt, and MEK1/2 (i.e., K252a, PP2, U73122, LY294002, and(More)
Osteoblast migration and proliferation are fundamental processes in bone healing. We demonstrated that the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1(GIT1) is a key regulator of bone mass and osteoblast cell migration, but little is known about GIT1 regulation by upstream signaling systems or the impact of GIT1 on downstream effectors. We found(More)
Jasmonates such as jasmonic acid (JA) are plant-signaling compounds that induce resistance to a broad range of herbivores. JA-dependent defenses are known to reduce the growth and survivorship of many insects. How plants coordinate fluctuating growth-defense dynamics is not well understood with regard to the role of JA in resistance to tomato root knot(More)
It is now well established that the protein BAD (a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein) plays a pivotal role in determining cell death and survival. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway has been hypothesized to be involved in regulation of BAD. To clarify the role of BAD within the JNK pathway, a randomized, controlled study was designed using a rabbit(More)
Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, has shown neuroprotection properties in both animals and humans. To evaluate the mechanisms involved, we obtained a culture of almost pure neurons. The neurons, either untreated or prophylactically treated with edaravone, were exposed to 300 μM hydrogen peroxide. We examined alterations in mitochondria, the percent of(More)
Autophagy serves to eliminate damaged proteins and organelles under normal physiological conditions and can be accelerated by pathological stress, possibly as a cytoprotective mechanism. Brief periods of ischemia (ischemic preconditioning or IPC) can reduce neuronal death in response to subsequent severe ischemic insults. Ischemic preconditioning also(More)
As a potent novel free radical scavenger, edaravone has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in both animals and humans, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In our study, we generated a culture of almost pure neurons, which were either left untreated or prophylactically treated with edaravone, then exposed to 50 μM glutamate for 10(More)
In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in regulating cortical neuron premature synapse formation. KN-93, a specific inhibitor of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interactor-1 (G1T1) siRNA were utilized, and the premature synapse formation(More)
Endochondral ossification, an important stage of fracture healing, is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily plays important roles and comprises TGFβs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth differentiation factors. TGFβs primarily regulate cartilage formation and endochondral ossification. BMP2(More)