Learn More
Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a GTPase-activating protein for Galpha(q), which is involved in regulating various vascular functions. To understand how RGS2 regulates foam cell formation, the present study identified signaling pathways controlled by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and discovered new mechanisms whereby protein kinase C (PKC)-eta and(More)
The disulfide-bond isomerase DsbC plays a crucial role in the folding of bacterial proteins in the periplasmic space. DsbC has a V-shaped dimeric structure with two domains, and Cys98 in the C-terminal domain attacks inappropriate disulfide bonds in substrate proteins due to its high nucleophilic activity. In this article, we present the crystal structure(More)
Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC is a multidrug efflux pump that expels a wide range of toxic substrates. The dynamic nature of the binding or low affinity between the components has impeded elucidation of how the three components assemble in the functional state. Here, we created fusion proteins composed of AcrB, a transmembrane linker, and two copies of AcrA.(More)
The resistance-nodulation-division type tripartite pump AcrAB-TolC and its homologs are responsible for multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria by expelling a wide variety of toxic substrates. The three essential components, AcrA, AcrB, and TolC, must function in concert with each respective binding partner within the complex. In this study, we(More)
Gram-negative bacteria are capable of expelling diverse xenobiotic substances from within the cell by use of three-component efflux pumps in which the energy-activated inner membrane transporter is connected to the outer membrane channel protein via the membrane fusion protein. In this work, we describe the crystal structure of the membrane fusion protein(More)
An intracellular α-amylase, AmyB, has been cloned from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana. AmyB belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 13 and liberates maltose from diverse substrates, including starch, amylose, amylopectin and glycogen. The final product of AmyB is similar to that of typical maltogenic amylases, but AmyB cleaves maltose(More)
Early growth response-1 (Egr-1), a zinc finger transcription factor, plays a key regulatory role in pathological cardiovascular processes including atherosclerosis. Here, we investigate whether Egr-1 expression and foam cell formation require toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). CpG DNA and its related synthetic CpG(More)
Although the delivery of biologically functional protein(s) into mammalian cells could be of tremendous value to biomedical research, the development of such technology has been hindered by the lack of a safe and effective delivery method. Here, we present a simple, efficient, and versatile gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system,(More)
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound in red wine that has antioxidant and cardioprotective effects in animal models. Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen that mainly affects immunocompromised individuals and is initially detected at the cell surface or in phagosomes by toll-like receptor 2. Many antioxidants also exert anti-inflammatory activities;(More)
Macrophage activation contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the vascular system, the major source of reactive oxygen species is the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family. Nox1 is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in macrophages, but the expression mechanism is not fully understood. We found that LPS causes beta-catenin accumulation by glycogen(More)