Jin Ren

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Many organs express the extracellular 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (conversion of extracellular 3',5'-cAMP to 5'-AMP and 5'-AMP to adenosine). Some organs release 2',3'-cAMP (isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'- and 3'-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway). As astrocytes and(More)
The RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is activated by binding to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Activation of PKR by short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and stimulation of the innate immune response has been suggested to explain certain off-target effects in some RNA interference experiments. Here we show that PKR's kinase activity is stimulated in vitro 3- to(More)
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is responsible for the deamination of immunosuppressive adenosine to inosine. In human T lymphocytes, ADA is associated with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26). ADA expression and activity were evaluated in regulatory T cells (Treg) and CD4(+) T effector cells (Teff) of patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC).(More)
Intratumoral hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1-α)-dependent CD39/CD73 ectoenzymes may govern the accumulation of tumor-protecting extracellular adenosine and signaling through A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) in tumor microenvironments (TME). Here, we explored the conceptually novel motivation to use supplemental oxygen as a treatment to inhibit(More)
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the presence of innumerable calcium phosphate microliths in the alveoli. Clinical-radiological dissociation is an important hallmark of this disease. Most PAM patients are asymptomatic and pulmonary tissue changes are discovered incidentally. PAM is pathologically(More)
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