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In this paper, we constructed a novel acellular nerve xenograft (ANX) seeded with neurons and Schwann cells to bridge long-distance gaps in rat sciatic nerves. The neurons and Schwann cells were induced from Sprague Dawley (SD) rat hair follicle neural crest stem cells with sonic hedgehog/retinoic acid and neuregulin 1, respectively. Fifty male SD rats were(More)
The innate immune response is essential for combating infectious disease. Macrophages and other cells respond to infection by releasing cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which in turn activate a well-described, myeloid-differentiation factor 88 (MYD88)-mediated, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent transcriptional pathway that results in(More)
The mechanisms governing the development of cardiac pacemaking and conduction system are not well understood. In order to provide evidence for the derivation of pacemaking cells and the signal that induce and maintain the cells in the developing heart, Nkx2.5+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) were isolated from embryonic heart tubes of rats. Endothelin-1 was(More)
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