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Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition in specific brain regions is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism underlying the regional vulnerability to Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Herein, we provide evidence that endogenous neuronal activity regulates the regional concentration of interstitial fluid (ISF) Aβ, which(More)
Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of extracellular aggregates of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and are a pathological signature of Alzheimer's disease. However, the factors that influence the dynamics of amyloid plaque formation and growth in vivo are largely unknown. Using serial intravital multiphoton microscopy through a thinned-skull cranial window(More)
One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the extracellular space in the brain. Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated amyloid β peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic fragment of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). For APP to be proteolytically cleaved into Aβ, it must be internalized(More)
OBJECTIVE There is a growing need to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers that can detect Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in cognitively normal individuals because it is in this population that disease-modifying therapies may have the greatest chance of success. While AD pathology is estimated to begin ~10-15 years prior to the onset of cognitive(More)
Functional neuroimaging (e.g., with fMRI) has been difficult to perform in mice, making it challenging to translate between human fMRI studies and molecular and genetic mechanisms. A method to easily perform large-scale functional neuroimaging in mice would enable the discovery of functional correlates of genetic manipulations and bridge with mouse models(More)
Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta)-induced death in cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) is preceded by mitochondrial dysfunction and signaling events characteristic of apoptosis. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis engages Bcl-2 family proteins, especially the BH3-only homologues, which play a key role in initiating the apoptotic cascade. Here, we report that the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cells lacking the ATM (ataxia telangectasia mutated) gene are hypersensitive to DNA damage caused by a variety of insults. ATM may regulate oxidative stress-induced signaling cascades involving nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor that is upstream of a wide variety of stress-responsive genes. We investigated the(More)
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of early intraneuronal deposits of amyloid-b 42 (Ab42) that precede extracellular amyloid deposition in vulnerable brain regions. It has been hypothesized that endosomal/ lysosomal dysfunction might be associated with the pathological accumulation of intracellular Ab42 in the brain. Our(More)
Methylprednisolone (MP) is used to treat a variety of neurological disorders involving white matter injury, including multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Although its mechanism of action has been attributed to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant properties, we examined the possibility that MP may have direct(More)
It has been postulated that the development of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may result from an imbalance between the generation and clearance of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). Although familial AD appears to be caused by Abeta overproduction, sporadic AD (the most prevalent form) may result from impairment in clearance. Recent evidence(More)