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Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition in specific brain regions is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism underlying the regional vulnerability to Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Herein, we provide evidence that endogenous neuronal activity regulates the regional concentration of interstitial fluid (ISF) Aβ, which(More)
Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of extracellular aggregates of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and are a pathological signature of Alzheimer's disease. However, the factors that influence the dynamics of amyloid plaque formation and growth in vivo are largely unknown. Using serial intravital multiphoton microscopy through a thinned-skull cranial window(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cells lacking the ATM (ataxia telangectasia mutated) gene are hypersensitive to DNA damage caused by a variety of insults. ATM may regulate oxidative stress-induced signaling cascades involving nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor that is upstream of a wide variety of stress-responsive genes. We investigated the(More)
Despite the global impact and advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases, the term "stroke" is not consistently defined in clinical practice, in clinical research, or in assessments of the public health. The classic definition is mainly clinical and does not account for advances in science and technology. The Stroke Council of(More)
One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the extracellular space in the brain. Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated amyloid β peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic fragment of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). For APP to be proteolytically cleaved into Aβ, it must be internalized(More)
OBJECTIVE There is a growing need to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers that can detect Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in cognitively normal individuals because it is in this population that disease-modifying therapies may have the greatest chance of success. While AD pathology is estimated to begin ~10-15 years prior to the onset of cognitive(More)
Functional neuroimaging (e.g., with fMRI) has been difficult to perform in mice, making it challenging to translate between human fMRI studies and molecular and genetic mechanisms. A method to easily perform large-scale functional neuroimaging in mice would enable the discovery of functional correlates of genetic manipulations and bridge with mouse models(More)
Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta)-induced death in cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) is preceded by mitochondrial dysfunction and signaling events characteristic of apoptosis. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis engages Bcl-2 family proteins, especially the BH3-only homologues, which play a key role in initiating the apoptotic cascade. Here, we report that the(More)
Cellular elements of the neurovascular unit are essential for the physiological functioning of brain vessels. If any of these vascular elements are disturbed the consequences can be dire. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a disorder caused by the accumulation of amyloid in cerebral vessels, provides a case study of progressive neurovascular unit(More)
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of early intraneuronal deposits of amyloid-b 42 (Ab42) that precede extracellular amyloid deposition in vulnerable brain regions. It has been hypothesized that endosomal/ lysosomal dysfunction might be associated with the pathological accumulation of intracellular Ab42 in the brain. Our(More)