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Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition in specific brain regions is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism underlying the regional vulnerability to Aβ deposition in Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Herein, we provide evidence that endogenous neuronal activity regulates the regional concentration of interstitial fluid (ISF) Aβ, which(More)
Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of extracellular aggregates of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and are a pathological signature of Alzheimer's disease. However, the factors that influence the dynamics of amyloid plaque formation and growth in vivo are largely unknown. Using serial intravital multiphoton microscopy through a thinned-skull cranial window(More)
Functional neuroimaging (e.g., with fMRI) has been difficult to perform in mice, making it challenging to translate between human fMRI studies and molecular and genetic mechanisms. A method to easily perform large-scale functional neuroimaging in mice would enable the discovery of functional correlates of genetic manipulations and bridge with mouse models(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cells lacking the ATM (ataxia telangectasia mutated) gene are hypersensitive to DNA damage caused by a variety of insults. ATM may regulate oxidative stress-induced signaling cascades involving nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor that is upstream of a wide variety of stress-responsive genes. We investigated the(More)
Despite the global impact and advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases, the term "stroke" is not consistently defined in clinical practice, in clinical research, or in assessments of the public health. The classic definition is mainly clinical and does not account for advances in science and technology. The Stroke Council of(More)
OBJECTIVE There is a growing need to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers that can detect Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in cognitively normal individuals because it is in this population that disease-modifying therapies may have the greatest chance of success. While AD pathology is estimated to begin ~10-15 years prior to the onset of cognitive(More)
The pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease is the senile plaque principally composed of tightly aggregated amyloid-beta fibrils (fAbeta), which are thought to be resistant to degradation and clearance. In this study, we explored whether proteases capable of degrading soluble Abeta (sAbeta) could degrade fAbeta as well. We demonstrate that matrix(More)
One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the amyloid plaque, primarily composed of aggregated amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide. In vitro, Abeta(1-42), the major alloform of Abeta found in plaques, self-assembles into fibrils at micromolar concentrations and acidic pH. Such conditions do not exist in the extracellular fluid of the(More)
It has been postulated that the development of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may result from an imbalance between the generation and clearance of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). Although familial AD appears to be caused by Abeta overproduction, sporadic AD (the most prevalent form) may result from impairment in clearance. Recent evidence(More)
One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the extracellular space in the brain. Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated amyloid β peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic fragment of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). For APP to be proteolytically cleaved into Aβ, it must be internalized(More)