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In this paper, we propose a 128-bit block cipher ARIA which is an involution substitution and permutation encryption network(SPN). We use the same S-boxes as Rijndael to eliminate defects which are caused by a totally involution structure. In the diffusion layer of ARIA, a 16×16 binary matrix of the maximum branch number 8 is used to avoid some attacks well(More)
Some of the existing time memory tradeoff attacks (TMTO) on specific systems can be reinterpreted as methods for inverting general oneway functions. We apply these methods back to specific systems in ways not considered before. This provides the following startling results. No streamcipher can provide security equal to its key length; some important(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a serine/threonine kinase originally identified as a regulator of glycogen deposition. Although the role of GSK-3β in osteoblasts is well characterized as a negative regulator of β-catenin, its effect on osteoclast formation remains largely unidentified. Here, we show that the GSK-3β inactivation upon receptor(More)
Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) negatively regulates skeletal myogenesis by targeting insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). Here, we show that MG53 is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that induces IRS-1 ubiquitination with the help of an E2-conjugating enzyme, UBE2H. Molecular manipulations that disrupt the E3-ligase function of MG53 abolish IRS-1 ubiquitination and enhance(More)
To address whether mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for skeletal myogenesis, C2C12 myogenesis was investigated after knockdown of NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquintone) flavoprotein 1 (NDUFV1), which is an oxidative phosphorylation complex I subunit that is the first subunit to accept electrons from NADH. The NDUFVI knockdown enhanced C2C12 myogenesis by(More)
The performances of three major time memory tradeoff algorithms were compared in a recent paper. The algorithms considered there were the classical Hellman tradeoff and the non-perfect table versions of the distinguished point method and the rainbow table method. This paper adds the perfect table versions of the distinguished point method and the rainbow(More)