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MEDEA (MEA) is an Arabidopsis Polycomb group gene that is imprinted in the endosperm. The maternal allele is expressed and the paternal allele is silent. MEA is controlled by DEMETER (DME), a DNA glycosylase required to activate MEA expression, and METHYLTRANSFERASE I (MET1), which maintains CG methylation at the MEA locus. Here we show that DME is(More)
Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Americas, is the most widely grown spice crop in the world. We report whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the hot pepper (Mexican landrace of Capsicum annuum cv. CM334) at 186.6× coverage. We also report resequencing of two cultivated peppers and de novo sequencing of the wild(More)
Cytosine DNA methylation is considered to be a stable epigenetic mark, but active demethylation has been observed in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DNA glycosylases of the DEMETER (DME) family remove methylcytosines from DNA. Demethylation by DME is necessary for genomic imprinting, and demethylation by a related protein, REPRESSOR OF(More)
Gene imprinting, the differential expression of maternal and paternal alleles, independently evolved in mammals and in flowering plants. A unique feature of flowering plants is a double-fertilization event in which the sperm fertilize not only the egg, which forms the embryo, but also the central cell, which develops into the endosperm (an embryo-supporting(More)
Susceptibility of chemical sensors to false positive signals remains a common drawback due to insufficient sensor coating selectivity. By mimicking biology, we have demonstrated the use of sequence-specific biopolymers to generate highly selective receptors for trinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Using mutational analysis, we show that the identified(More)
In plants and animals, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) serves as an epigenetic mark to repress gene expression, playing critical roles for cellular differentiation and transposon silencing. Mammals also have 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting from hydroxylation of 5mC by TET family-enzymes. 5hmC is abundant in mouse Purkinje neurons and embryonic stem cells,(More)
Imprinting occurs in the endosperm of flowering plants. Endosperm, produced by fertilization of the central cell in the female gametophyte, is essential for embryo and seed development. Several imprinted genes play an important role in endosperm development. The mechanism of gene imprinting involves DNA methylation and histone modification. DNA methylation(More)
DNA glycosylases initiate the base excision repair (BER) pathway by excising damaged, mismatched, or otherwise modified bases. Animals and plants independently evolved active BER-dependent DNA demethylation mechanisms important for epigenetic reprogramming. One such DNA demethylation mechanism is uniquely initiated in plants by DEMETER (DME)-class DNA(More)
Methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is important for gene expression, gene imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and transposon silencing. Active demethylation in animals is believed to proceed by DNA glycosylase removal of deaminated or oxidized 5mC. In plants, 5mC is removed from the genome directly by the DEMETER (DME) family of DNA(More)
DNA methylation is a primary epigenetic modification regulating gene expression and chromatin structure in many eukaryotes. Plants have a unique DNA demethylation system in that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is directly removed by DNA demethylases, such as DME/ROS1 family proteins, but little is known about the downstream events. During 5mC excision, DME produces(More)