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Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide(More)
The Amazon rain forest may undergo significant change in response to future climate change. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, the authors analyzed the output of 24 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model, Vegetation–Global–Atmosphere–Soil (VEGAS),(More)
Successive cold winters of severely low temperatures in recent years have had critical social and economic impacts on the mid-latitude continents in the Northern Hemisphere. Although these cold winters are thought to be partly driven by dramatic losses of Arctic sea-ice, the mechanism that links sea-ice loss to cold winters remains a subject of debate.(More)
Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse(More)
Rho family small GTPases act as molecular switches that regulate neuronal morphogenesis, including axon growth and guidance, dendritic spine formation, and synapse formation. These proteins are positively regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the Dbl family. This study describes the identification and characterization of Drosophila(More)
1 Global-scale solar geoengineering is the deliberate modification of the climate system to 2 offset some amount of anthropogenic climate change by reducing the amount of incident solar 3 radiation at the surface. These changes to the planetary energy budget result in differential 4 regional climate effects. For the first time, we quantitatively evaluate(More)
In an approach termed the PER method, where the key input variables are observed precipitation P and runoff R and estimated evaporation, the authors apply the basin water budget equation to diagnose the long-term variability of the total terrestrial water storage (TWS). Unlike the typical offline land surface model estimate where only atmospheric variables(More)
Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. To study rice and maize production changes in China, we used results from 10 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G2 scenario to force the Decision(More)