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The haptics-based master-slave system for Minimally Invasive Surgery is a promising way to protect surgeons from long time radiation and to train novice doctors to learn basic wire or catheter handling skills. However, the time delay of transmission of visual video and the time difference between image information and force signals restrict the application(More)
The Internet-based robotic catheter operating system for Vascular Interventional Surgery (VIS) provides a promising way to enhance emergency medical care and to train novice doctors to learn basic wire or catheter handling skills across the whole world. However, variable and unpredictable transmission time delay of visual feedback is always associated with(More)
  • Jin Guo
  • 1997
Tokenization is the process of mapping sentences from character strings into strings of words. This paper sets out to study critical tokenization, a distinctive type of tokenization following the principle of maximum tokenization. The objective in this paper is to develop its mathematical description and understanding. The main results are as follows: (1)(More)
Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a specialized surgical technique that permits vascular interventions through very small incisions. This minimizes the patients' trauma and permits a faster recovery compared to traditional surgery. However, the significant disadvantage of this surgery technique is its complexity; therefore, it requires extensive training(More)
BACKGROUND An Internet-based tele-operative robotic catheter operating system was designed for vascular interventional surgery, to afford unskilled surgeons the opportunity to learn basic catheter/guidewire skills, while allowing experienced physicians to perform surgeries cooperatively. Remote surgical procedures, limited by variable transmission times for(More)
PURPOSE It is difficult to manipulate a flexible catheter to target a position within a patient's complicated and delicate vessels. However, few researchers focused on the controller designs with much consideration of the natural catheter manipulation skills obtained from manual catheterization. Also, the existing catheter motion measurement methods(More)
We report in this paper the observation of one tokenization per source. That is, the same critical fragment in different sentences from the same source almost always realize one and the same of its many possible tokenizations. This observation is demonstrated very helpful in sentence tokenization practice, and is argued to be with far-reaching implications(More)
There is an increasing realization that Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a specialized surgical technique that permits vascular interventions through very small incisions. Some operational tasks can be performed significantly better by robots than humans due to associated hazards and distance. However, the significant disadvantage of this surgical(More)