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  • Jin Guo
  • Computational Linguistics
  • 1997
Tokenization is the process of mapping sentences from character strings into strings of words. This paper sets out to study critical tokenization, a distinctive type of tokenization following the principle of maximum tokenization. The objective in this paper is to develop its mathematical description and understanding. The main results are as follows: (1)(More)
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Most cases of AMI result from coronary atherosclerosis (AS). The pathogenic mechanisms underlying AS lesions and AMI are incompletely understood. Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) belong to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors. We previously discovered that CaSR was expressed in the(More)
An UASB+Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) system was introduced to treat a mature landfill leachate with low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and high ammonia concentration. To make the best use of the biodegradable COD in the leachate, the denitrification of NOx- -N in the recirculation effluent from the clarifier was carried out in the UASB. The results showed that most(More)
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetylaspartylglutamate into N-acetylaspartate and glutamate in the brain. Animal experiments suggested that GCPII plays an essential role in early embryonic development. Previous studies provided conflicting results on the effect of the GCPII rs61886492 C>T (or 1561C>T) polymorphism on(More)
We develop a fiber optical coherence tomography (OCT) system in the clinical utility of imaging port wine stains (PWS). We use our OCT system on 41 patients with PWS to document the difference between PWS skin and contralateral normal skin. The system, which operates at 4 frames with axial and transverse resolutions of 10 and 9 mum, respectively, in the(More)
BACKGROUND Neural tube defects are severe, common birth defects that result from failure of neural tube closure. They are considered to be a multifactorial disorder, and our knowledge of causal mechanisms remains limited. We hypothesized that abnormal DNA methylation occurs in NTD-affected fetuses. The correlations of global DNA methylation levels with(More)
BACKGROUND Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study evaluated the potential use of miR-21 as a risk marker for postoperative AKI progression and other poor outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS The study included 120 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery: 40 non-AKI controls, 39(More)
The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to family C of the G protein coupled receptors. Whether the CaSR is expressed in the pulmonary artery (PA) is unknown. The expression and distribution of CaSR were detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. PA tension was detected by the pulmonary arterial ring technique, and the(More)
Dopamine D2 receptors (DR2) are important regulators in many organs, including cardiac system. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation and translocation is associated with cardioprotection against ischemic post-conditioning (PC); however, the regulatory role of DR2 during this process has been unknown. This study hypothesized that the prevention of cardiomyocyte(More)
Autoantibodies (aAbs) to thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the hallmark of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), recognize conformational epitopes restricted to an immunodominant region (IDR), divided into two overlapping domains A and B. Despite numerous efforts aimed at localizing the IDR and identifying aAb-interacting residues on TPO, only two critical amino(More)