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PURPOSE To characterize retinal functional consequences of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in a rat model of experimental glaucoma. METHODS Unilateral elevation of IOP was produced by hypertonic saline injection into an episcleral vein in 20 adult male Brown-Norway rats. IOP was measured in both eyes of awake animals four to five times per week. After(More)
PURPOSE To describe varicosities of intraretinal ganglion cell axons in the nerve fiber layer of human and nonhuman primate retinas. METHODS Intraretinal ganglion cell axons of seven human donors (1-85 years old) and two nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta, 15 and 17 years old) were immunohistochemically stained with an antibody of neurofilament on(More)
Identified as a strategic area, supply chain transformation plays a critical role in today's IBM business. In this paper, we introduce an effort in IBM Research Division named SmartSCOR, which provides a comprehensive framework and methodology for On-Demand SCM problem-solving based on the cross-industry process standard Supply Chain Operations Reference(More)
PURPOSE Glial cells are structurally and functionally linked to neuronal tissues. Pathologically, the cells may be activated and characterized by increased size and number and altered cellular properties. In glaucoma, pathologic mechanisms within the anterior optic nerve may include glial activation. This study examines morphologic changes of glial cells in(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of chronic optic nerve ischemia in a nonhuman primate model and to evaluate the regional variability of axonal loss. METHODS Unilateral ischemic optic neuropathy was induced by administration of endothelin-1 to the retrobulbar space via osmotic pumps in 12 primates for 6 to 12 months. The transversely cut sections were(More)
PURPOSE The goal of the present study is to develop a semi-automated method to estimate accurately, with minimum variance, the total number of axons by counting a subset of the axons within a primate optic nerve. METHODS Using an imaging analysis system, axons in 50% of the area of cross-sections of the retrobulbar optic nerve from five adult Rhesus(More)
Human salivary histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a nonimmune salivary protein with antifungal activity against an important human pathogen, Candida albicans. The candidacidal activity of histatins appears to be a distinctive multistep mechanism involving depletion of the C. albicans intracellular ATP content as a result of nonlytic ATP efflux. Hst 5 caused a loss of(More)
Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein reported to be important for both nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and mitochondrial DNA replication. To evaluate the in vivo function of EndoG, we have investigated the effects of EndoG deficiency in cells and mice. We found that EndoG homozygous mutant embryos die between(More)
Salivary histatins (Hsts) are potent candidacidal proteins that induce a nonlytic form of cell death in Candida albicans accompanied by loss of mean cell volume, cell cycle arrest, and elevation of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since these phenotypes are often markers of programmed cell death and apoptosis, we investigated whether(More)