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PURPOSE To describe varicosities of intraretinal ganglion cell axons in the nerve fiber layer of human and nonhuman primate retinas. METHODS Intraretinal ganglion cell axons of seven human donors (1-85 years old) and two nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta, 15 and 17 years old) were immunohistochemically stained with an antibody of neurofilament on(More)
Identified as a strategic area, supply chain transformation plays a critical role in today's IBM business. In this paper, we introduce an effort in IBM Research Division named SmartSCOR, which provides a comprehensive framework and methodology for On-Demand SCM problem-solving based on the cross-industry process standard Supply Chain Operations Reference(More)
PURPOSE Glial cells are structurally and functionally linked to neuronal tissues. Pathologically, the cells may be activated and characterized by increased size and number and altered cellular properties. In glaucoma, pathologic mechanisms within the anterior optic nerve may include glial activation. This study examines morphologic changes of glial cells in(More)
PURPOSE To characterize retinal functional consequences of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in a rat model of experimental glaucoma. METHODS Unilateral elevation of IOP was produced by hypertonic saline injection into an episcleral vein in 20 adult male Brown-Norway rats. IOP was measured in both eyes of awake animals four to five times per week. After(More)
PURPOSE To assess the structural and functional consequences of local ganglion cell (GC) loss in an experimental model of a retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) bundle defect. To evaluate and compare three commonly used multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) stimuli, as well as the standard transient pattern-reversal ERG (pERG) and the photopic full-field ERG, for(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of chronic optic nerve ischemia in a nonhuman primate model and to evaluate the regional variability of axonal loss. METHODS Unilateral ischemic optic neuropathy was induced by administration of endothelin-1 to the retrobulbar space via osmotic pumps in 12 primates for 6 to 12 months. The transversely cut sections were(More)
PURPOSE The goal of the present study is to develop a semi-automated method to estimate accurately, with minimum variance, the total number of axons by counting a subset of the axons within a primate optic nerve. METHODS Using an imaging analysis system, axons in 50% of the area of cross-sections of the retrobulbar optic nerve from five adult Rhesus(More)
Business process is crucial to the success of any business. Business process modeling enables a common understanding and analysis of a business process, and simulation is an effective way to diagnose and evaluate complex business processes. There are lots of software tools in market for business process modeling and simulation, however, a common issue for(More)
IBM General Business Simulation Environment (GBSE) is a supply chain simulation tool developed by IBM China Research Lab. It can capture supply chain dynamics with finest level of granularity and provides great insights to a supply chain's real operations. GBSE is designed for tactical level decision making; it is proper for supply chain what-if analysis(More)