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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety-spectrum disorder characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive actions (compulsions). Dysfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry is implicated in OCD, although the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. SAP90/PSD95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3; also known(More)
The nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway is implicated in modulation of visual information processing in the retina. Despite numerous functional studies of this pathway, information about the retinal distribution of the major downstream effector of NO, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), is very limited. In the present work, we have used immunohistochemistry and(More)
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a key role in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity; its location is critical for signal transduction, and may provide clues that further elucidate its function. We therefore examined the subcellular localization of CaMKII in CA1 stratum radiatum of adult(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a late-onset, neurodegenerative retinal disease that shares several clinical and pathological features with Alzheimer's disease (AD) including extracellular deposits containing amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides. Immunotherapy targeting the Abeta protein has been investigated as a potential treatment for AD. Here, we(More)
The diffusible messenger nitric oxide (NO) acts in the brain largely through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), a heterodimer comprising alpha and beta subunits. We used immunohistochemistry to study the distribution of both sGC subunits in the brain of adult rats. alpha and beta subunits gave similar widespread staining throughout the CNS, which(More)
The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of inner retinal circuitry are poorly understood. Reelin and apolipoprotein E (apoE), ligands of apoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), are involved in retinal development and degeneration, respectively. Here we describe the function of ApoER2 in the developing and adult retina. ApoER2 expression was(More)
Human neuroimaging studies suggest that aberrant neural connectivity underlies behavioural deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the molecular and neural circuit mechanisms underlying ASDs remain elusive. Here, we describe a complete knockout mouse model of the autism-associated Shank3 gene, with a deletion of exons 4-22 (Δe4-22). Both(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in pain processing at the spinal level, but the mechanisms mediating its effects remain unclear. In the present work, we studied the organization of the major downstream effector of NO, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), in the superficial dorsal horn of rat. Almost all neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-positive neurons in(More)
By conveying signals from the small GTPase family of proteins to the Arp2/3 complex, proteins of the WAVE family facilitate actin remodeling. The WAVE-1 isoform is expressed at high levels in brain, where it plays a role in normal synaptic processing, and is implicated in hippocampus-dependent memory retention. We used electron microscopy to determine(More)
Photoreceptor discs are membrane organelles harboring components of the visual signal transduction pathway. The mechanism by which discs form remains enigmatic and is the subject of a major controversy. Classical studies suggest that discs are formed as serial plasma membrane evaginations, whereas a recent alternative postulates that discs, at least in(More)