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PURPOSE Most linear accelerators purchased today are equipped with a gantry-mounted kilovoltage X-ray imager which is typically used for patient imaging prior to therapy. A novel application of the X-ray system is kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM), in which the 3-dimensional (3D) tumor position is determined during treatment. In this paper, we(More)
PURPOSE To assess and compare the dosimetric impact of dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking and gating as motion correction strategies to account for intrafraction motion during conventionally fractionated prostate radiotherapy. METHODS A dose reconstruction method was used to retrospectively assess the dose distributions delivered without motion(More)
PURPOSE We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. METHODS An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send(More)
PURPOSE Tumor positional uncertainty has been identified as a major issue that deteriorates the efficacy of radiation therapy. Tumor rotational movement, which is not well understood, can result in significant geometric and dosimetric inaccuracies. The objective of this study was to measure 6 degrees-of-freedom (6 DoF) prostate and lung tumor motion,(More)
PURPOSE Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a new real-time 3-dimensional image guidance method. Unlike previous real-time image guidance methods, KIM uses a standard linear accelerator without any additional equipment needed. The first prospective clinical trial of KIM is underway for prostate cancer radiation therapy. In this paper we report on(More)
PURPOSE Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a real-time 3D tumor monitoring system for cancer radiotherapy. KIM uses the commonly available gantry-mounted x-ray imager as input, making this method potentially more widely available than dedicated real-time 3D tumor monitoring systems. KIM is being piloted in a clinical trial for prostate cancer(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The use of a tissue expander (hydrogel) for sparing of the rectum from increased irradiation during prostate radiotherapy is becoming popular. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of a tissue expander (hydrogel) on the intrafraction prostate motion during radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIAL Real time prostate motion(More)
When modelling biological ion channels using Brownian dynamics (BD) or Poisson–Nernst–Planck theory, the force encountered by permeant ions is calculated by solving Poisson’s equation. Two free parameters needed to solve this equation are the dielectric constant of water in the pore and the dielectric constant of the protein forming the channel. Although(More)
Kilovoltage intratreatment monitoring (KIM) is a novel real-time localization modality where the tumor position is continuously measured during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) by a kilovoltage (kV) x-ray imager. Adding kV imaging during therapy adds radiation dose. The additional effective dose is(More)
Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) utilises the kV imager during treatment for real-time tracking of prostate fiducial markers. However, its effectiveness relies on sufficient image quality for the fiducial tracking task. To guide the performance characterisation of KIM under different clinically relevant conditions, the effect of different kV(More)