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Human pluripotent stem cells offer promise for use in cell-based therapies for brain injury and diseases. However, their cellular behavior is poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of the brain-specific microRNA-9 (miR-9) is turned on in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells. Loss of miR-9 suppressed(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in regulating various aspects of animal development, but their functions in neurogenesis are largely unknown. Here we report that loss of miR-9a function in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system leads to ectopic production of sensory organ precursors (SOPs), whereas overexpression of miR-9a results in a severe loss(More)
Neurodevelopmental disorders include a wide range of diseases such as autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Mutations in several genes that regulate neural development and synapse function have been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, some affected genes and pathways in these diseases are associated with the autophagy(More)
Repeated pulses of serotonin (5-HT) induce long-term facilitation (LTF) of the synapses between sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia. To explore how apCAM downregulation at the plasma membrane and CREB-mediated transcription in the nucleus, both of which are required for the formation of LTF, might relate to each other, we(More)
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) regulate protein trafficking from endosomes to lysosomes. Recent studies have shown that ESCRTs are involved in various cellular processes, including membrane scission, microRNA function, viral budding, and the autophagy pathway in many tissues, including the nervous system. Indeed,(More)
Autophagy is a bulk lysosomal degradation process important in development, differentiation and cellular homeostasis in multiple organs. Interestingly, neuronal survival is highly dependent on autophagy due to its post-mitotic nature, polarized morphology and active protein trafficking. A growing body of evidence now suggests that alteration or dysfunction(More)
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia before 60 years of age. Rare pathogenic mutations in CHMP2B, which encodes a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-III), are associated with FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Animal models of FTD3 have not yet been reported, and what signaling pathways are(More)
The memory reconsolidation hypothesis suggests that a memory trace becomes labile after retrieval and needs to be reconsolidated before it can be stabilized. However, it is unclear from earlier studies whether the same synapses involved in encoding the memory trace are those that are destabilized and restabilized after the synaptic reactivation that(More)
Autophagy is a conserved lysosomal protein degradation pathway whose precise roles in age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases remain largely unknown. Here we show that the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine delays neuronal cell loss caused by dysfunctional endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III), either through loss of its(More)
Although the dendritic localization and translation of a subset of mRNAs plays a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, the dendritic mRNAs and their functions have been only minimally characterized thus far. In this study, we isolated mRNAs from Staufen2-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes, which function as modules for the transport of mRNA to the(More)