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The related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) are expressed at high levels in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but their function in the regulation of circadian rhythms is unknown. To study the role of these peptides on the circadian system in vivo, a new mouse model was developed in(More)
Previous studies indicate that light information reaches the suprachiasmatic nucleus through a subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells that contain both glutamate and pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). Although the role of glutamate in this pathway has been well studied, the involvement of PACAP and its receptors is only beginning to be(More)
The effectiveness of pre-performance routines on skilled performance in a self-paced skill has yet to be verified. In this study, we examine the importance of temporal and behavioural consistency in these routines. The duration and specific pattern of behaviours exhibited before each free throw (n = 284) were observed during 14 National Basketball(More)
Although positive and negative signals control neurogenesis in the embryo, factors regulating postnatal proliferation are less well characterized. In the vertebrate cerebellum, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is an efficacious mitogen for cerebellar granule neuron precursors (GNPs), and mutations activating the Shh pathway are linked to medulloblastoma, a tumor(More)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding sites have been detected in the embryonic brain, but the specific receptor subtypes and biological functions for ANP family ligands therein remain undefined. We now characterize the patterns of gene expression for the natriuretic peptides [ANP, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), type-C natriuretic peptide (CNP)] and(More)
Neuronal death, which follows ischemic injury or is triggered by excitotoxins, can occur by both apoptosis and necrosis. Caspases, which are not directly required for necrotic cell death, are central mediators of the apoptotic program. Here we demonstrate that caspases cleave and inactivate the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump (PMCA) in neurons and non-neuronal(More)
Four very low birth weight, very premature infants were monitored during a 12 • postural elevation using diffuse correlation spec-troscopy (DCS) to measure microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) to measure macrovascular blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery. DCS data correlated significantly with peak(More)
It has been demonstrated that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) promotes the survival of neurons in culture and can inhibit neuronal cell death after experimental injury. Furthermore, peripheral axotomy results in increased PACAP gene expression in sensory and sympathetic neurons, suggesting that PACAP might be a mediator in the(More)
In the present study, we evaluated the time-course of caspase-3 activation, and the evolution of cell death following focal cerebral ischemia produced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Ischemia-induced active caspase-3 immunoreactivity in the striatum but not the cortex at 3 and 6 h time points post-reperfusion. Furthermore, using a(More)
Corticocortical disconnection in Alzheimer's disease occurs by the progressive impairment and eventual loss of a small subset of pyramidal neurons in layers III and V of association areas of the neocortex. These neurons exhibit large somatic size, extensive dendritic arborization and high levels of nonphosphorylated neurofilaments of medium and high(More)