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Two different cell populations, high- (MARC-145) and low-permissive cell clones (L-1) to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, were derived from MA-104 cell line (parent cell: P) by cell cloning. Maximum virus yields in MARC-145, P, and L-1 cell clones were 108.5, 103.5, and 102.5 tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50)/0.1 ml,(More)
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs. In this study, transcription and translation of a novel viral gene (termed ORF3 here) was detected during productive infection of PCV2 in PK15 cells. The results of infection with ORF3-deficient PCV2 by site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the(More)
Seven Newcastle disease (ND) virus (NDV) isolates which were recovered from ND outbreaks in chicken and pigeon flocks in China and Taiwan between 1996 and 2000 were genotypically and pathotypically characterized. By phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes, isolates Ch-A7/96, Ch/98-3, Ch/99, Ch/2000, and TW/2000 were placed into two novel(More)
 The complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a vaccine strain (SP) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was determined. It shares approximately 94% identity of nucleotide sequence with two recently reported North American strains, 16244B and VR2332, but only 78% with a European strain, Lelystad virus (LV). Its genome is(More)
Betanodaviruses are small positive-sense bipartite RNA viruses that infect a wide variety of fish species and are notorious for causing lethal outbreaks in juvenile fish hatcheries worldwide. The function of a small nonstructural protein, B2, encoded by the subgenomic RNA3 of betanodaviruses, has remained obscure. Greasy grouper nervous necrosis virus, a(More)
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an infectious pathogen of shrimp and other crustaceans, and neither effective vaccines nor adequate treatments are currently available. WSSV is an enveloped dsDNA virus, and one of its major envelope proteins, VP28, plays a pivotal role in WSSV infection. In an attempt to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we inserted the(More)
Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a serious disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the good novel vaccine candidates to control this disease. Until now, betanodavirus vaccine studies mainly focused on the humoral immune response and mortality after virus challenge. However,(More)
The HA2 glycopolypeptide (gp) is highly conserved in all influenza A virus strains, and it is known to play a major role in the fusion of the virus with the endosomal membrane in host cells during the course of viral infection. Vaccines and therapeutics targeting this HA2 gp could induce efficient broad-spectrum immunity against influenza A virus(More)
The ompA gene, encoding the 42-kDa major antigenic outer membrane protein OmpA of Riemerella anatipestifer, the etiololgical agent of septicemia anserum exsudativa, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant OmpA displayed a molecular mass similar to that predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the ompA gene but lower than that observed in(More)
The efficiency of two direct gene transfer methods, gene gun (or particle bombardment) and intramuscular injection, in transforming adult zebrafish tissues in vivo was examined by a noninvasive approach using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene driven by the ubiquitously expressed human cytomegalovirus promoter. Particle bombardment of adult(More)