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Open reading frame (ORF) 50 protein is capable of activating the entire lytic cycle of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), but its mechanism of action is not well characterized. Here we demonstrate that ORF 50 protein activates two KSHV lytic cycle genes, PAN (polyadenylated nuclear RNA) and K12, by binding to closely related response elements(More)
As early as 5 days after DNA copies of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) genome or even in vitro-transcribed HDV RNA sequences were injected into the mouse tail vein using the hydrodynamics-based transfection procedure of F. Liu et al. (Gene Ther. 6:1258-1266, 1999), it was possible to detect in the liver by Northern analyses of RNA, immunoblots of protein,(More)
Human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a natural subviral agent that uses hepatitis B virus as a helper. Experimentally, HDV can be made to replicate in woodchucks, using woodchuck hepatitis B virus as a helper virus. Also, independent of such helper activity, replication of the HDV RNA genome can be achieved in many mammalian cells. In this study we examined(More)
The 195- and 214-amino-acid (aa) forms of the delta protein (deltaAg-S and deltaAg-L, respectively) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) differ only in the 19-aa C-terminal extension unique to deltaAg-L. deltaAg-S is needed for genome replication, while deltaAg-L is needed for particle assembly. These proteins share a region at aa 12 to 60, which mediates(More)
Examination of the 1,679-nucleotide (nt) unit-length hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNAs in the livers of two HDV-infected woodchucks showed that 96% of the antigenomic RNA but only 50% of the genomic RNA was circular. We subsequently found that at least half of the linear unit-length genomic RNA was open at a unique location. Using a modified form of RNA(More)
In this paper, we describe a system for correcting grammatical errors in texts written by non-native learners. In our approach, a given sentence with syntactic features are sent to a number of modules, each focuses on a specific error type. A main program integrates corrections from these modules and outputs the corrected sentence. We evaluated our system(More)
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