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Primary microcephaly (MIM 251200) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental condition in which there is a global reduction in cerebral cortex volume, to a size comparable with that of early hominids. We previously mapped the MCPH1 locus, for primary microcephaly, to chromosome 8p23, and here we report that a gene within this interval, encoding a BRCA1(More)
The action of bile salts upon the rat blood-brain barrier (BBB) was assessed in the absence of energy-yielding metabolism. Brains were perfused in situ with a Ringer solution for 5 min followed by a 1 min perfusion containing either sodium deoxycholate (DOC), taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC), or Ringer/DNP. The integrity of the BBB was then determined by(More)
Using a subtractive hybridization technique directed to cloning transcripts with compartmentalized distributions within cerebral cortex neurons, we have isolated rat s-rex mRNAs that are analogues of the human neuroendocrine-specific NSP gene transcripts. Differential splicing produces two main s-rex mRNA that have different regional distributions in the(More)
Neurturin (NTN) is a recently identified homologue of glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Both factors promote the survival of a variety of neurons, and GDNF is required for the development of the enteric nervous system and kidney. GDNF signals through a receptor complex consisting of the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret and a(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with diameter in the range of 10–30 nm) before and after chemical surface functionalisation on macrophages response. The study has shown that the detailed analysis of the physicochemical properties of this particular form of carbon nanomaterial is a crucial issue to(More)
We have used short-term (8 h) cultures of week-old rat cerebellar granule cells to examine the effects on neuritogenesis of activation and down-regulation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters. We have previously demonstrated that endogenously released glutamate promoted neurite outgrowth in the same system acting via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Low(More)
Mouse trigeminal neurons survive independently of neurotrophins when their axons are growing to their targets, and are then transiently supported by BDNF before becoming NGF dependent. During the stage of neurotrophin independence, transcripts encoding the BDNF receptor, TrkB, were expressed at very low levels. During the stage of BDNF dependence, high(More)
Class I(A) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is a key component of important intracellular signalling cascades. We have identified an adaptor protein, Ruk(l), which forms complexes with the PI 3-kinase holoenzyme in vitro and in vivo. This interaction involves the proline-rich region of Ruk and the SH3 domain of the p85 alpha regulatory subunit of(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), before and after chemical surface functionalization on muscle cell response in vitro and in vivo conditions. Prior to biological tests the surface physicochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) deposited on a polymer membrane were investigated. To(More)