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We have pioneered what we believe is a novel method of stimulating cochlear neurons, using pulsed infrared radiation, based on the hypothesis that optical radiation can provide more spatially selective stimulation of the cochlea than electric current. Very little of the available optical parameter space has been used for optical stimulation of neurons.(More)
Pulsed lasers can evoke neural activity from motor as well as sensory neurons in vivo. Lasers allow more selective spatial resolution of stimulation than the conventional electrical stimulation. To date, few studies have examined pulsed, mid-infrared laser stimulation of nerves and very little of the available optical parameter space has been studied. In(More)
We present the results of quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in 55 consecutively referred patients with clinical evidence of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The Cavalieri method was used in combination with point counting to provide unbiased estimates of the volume of the left and right hippocampus, amygdala, temporal lobe, lateral ventricles and(More)
Iron-loaded human spleen tissue was immersed in neutral buffered formalin over a period of 200 days. Over the first 60 days, iron leached steadily from the tissue until 3% had been lost. Thereafter, no further iron leaching was detected. Comparisons of Mossbauer spectra of freeze-dried tissue and tissue freeze-dried after immersion in formalin for 200 days(More)
An automatic method for identifying hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained from patients with clinical evidence of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is described. The method is based on the analysis of image intensity differences between patients and controls within a volume of interest (VOI) centred on the hippocampus. The core of the(More)
Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) and several analogues were synthesized and assessed in the rat hepatocyte culture for their potential in iron chelation therapy. Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone and pyridoxal benzoyl hydrazone were as effective as desferrioxamine (DFO) in reducing both net uptake of rat transferrin-59Fe and incorporation into(More)
Female Porton rats were loaded with iron either by supplementing the diet with 2.5% carbonyl iron for up to 22 months (18 rats) or by regularly injecting rat blood cells intraperitoneally for up to 10 months (eight rats). 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of freeze-dried samples of liver and spleen was used to analyse the chemical forms of iron deposited in these(More)